President Lt. Gen. Dr Seretse Khama Ian Khama’s administration is moving swiftly with pace and strong intentions to amend the contentious Public Service Act of 2008 following a resolution from cabinet recently.
The executive is said to have given the move a nod, and plans are underway to take it to the parliament floor for debating. Indications suggest that the goal is to present the bill at the national assembly’s next sitting (July). It is said that the ruling Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) legislators are expected to knock down opposition party lawmakers in numbers in a move to rubber stamp the amendment bill into law. The said controversial bill (re-enactment) was gazetted on the 5th May 2017.
Some sections which leave a lot to be desired in the contentious bill include section 72 which states that the Directorate of Public Service Management (DPSM) shall be the Secretariat of the Public Service Bargaining Council (PSBC). The section is a departure from the previous arrangement where the Secretariat was appointed by independent bodies appointed by the Council so that it too remains autonomous.
Another controversial section is 73 (1) which posits “the Commissioner may, on application by an interested party, and on reasonable cause being shown, cancel the registration of the Council. (2) Any interested party aggrieved by a decision of the Commissioner to cancel registration of the Council, may appeal against that decision, to the Industrial Court.
In addition, section 74 (3) says: “representatives of both the trade unions and employer under subsections (1) and (2) shall be public officers” together with subsection (4) which mentions that “the Minister shall, from amongst persons who are not representatives, appoint a chairperson and a deputy chairperson” were also said to have been done in bad faith. Still on section 74, subsection (7b) states that 50 percent of the members, excluding the Chairperson and deputy Chairperson, shall constitute a quorum.
Moreover, some debatable sections to be amended also include section 79 (1) which says every trade union recognised under the Act shall be entitled to be a party in the Council and shall be entitled to have only one union representative at the Council. The section continues at subsection (2) citing that every trade union recognised under the Act shall be entitled to appoint public officers as representatives from among its members for purposes of (a) bargaining in good faith with government and b) representing its members in respect of disciplinary proceedings involving acts of serious misconduct.
In terms of subscriptions “government shall not be required to deduct any trade union dues or levies from employees wages on behalf of any trade union save for union membership subscriptions,” reads section 79 (5) another section deemed as part of the controversial amendments to the Public Service Act of 2008. The Act which is being amended, (Public Service Act No 30 of 2008) is said to be a direct result of the ratification of three ILO Conventions by the Botswana Government ratified in 1997.
It was in 2010 that the objective of the 2008 Public Service Act was to provide for a single legislation governing employment of all employees of Government. The Act also was to provide for the establishment of Public Service Bargaining Structures and recognized Public Service trade unions to engage in negotiations and bargaining over issues which have been identified and are matters for negotiation. The Act commenced on the 1st May 2010 and was published in the Botswana Gazette No. 11 of March 2010.
Previously it is understood that there were four pieces of legislation governing employment in the Public Service and these were the Public Service Act CAP 26:01, Unified Local Government Service Act, Teaching Service Act and Tribal Land Act Part II (a) to II (f). It was said then that the use of these separate laws resulted in inconsistencies in the conditions of service and uncoordinated relationships between Government as an employer and some civil servants.
“The Act thus establishes a single public service; ensures consistent terms and conditions of employment for all government employees; and installs systematic collective bargaining processes.” Meanwhile, it remains a mystery on what the government is trying to achieve by the impending amendment to the Act. Some say they are trying to climb down on the workers’ rights to bargain effectively. The new imminent amendments to the Act are seen as a target to the Bargaining Council which gives the government of the day sleepless nights.
Some say it is a drawback also to the current legislatures as it is moving away from the spirit of ILO in terms of standards and conventions of giving power to workers. When reached for comment concerning the amendments, a negotiating partner at the PSBC and part of the tripartite arrangement at ILO, Botswana Federation of Public, Private and Parastatal Sectors Union (BOFEPUSU) Secretary General Tobokani Rari said they were never consulted when the amendments were being made and as such don’t approve of them.
“We are surprised that the bill has now been gazetted contrary to all the promises. We would like to state for the record that there has not been any meaningful consultation,” he told Weekend Post in an interview this week. Rari narrated that they wrote to government requesting that they be given reasons for the intended amendment, but the employer never replied. He added that they nevertheless proceeded to write, providing their views on the intended amendments “hoping for further physical engagement on the same”.
“We then met Director of DPSM in March 2017 where we asked about the engagement on the proposed amendments. At this meeting the Director intimated to us that the amendments were about to be gazetted, but however stated that she would engage the Minister on the possibility of halting the process for further engagements,” the unionist pointed out.
Rari continued: “we then met Minister Mabeo recently during the month of April. We raised the same matter of consultation. At this meeting we came to a common ground that with the assistance of an ILO team of experts, the amendment of all the labour laws would be harmonised and as such we were assured of further engagement.”
During the month of the same month of April, Rari said they also met Assistant Minister in the Office of the President Thato Kwerepe whereat the very issue was raised yet again. According to Rari, Minister Kwerepe assured the delegation that BOFEPUSU would be consulted before gazetting the bill.
The BOFEPUSU SG stressed that the courts have on several occasions dealt with the concept of meaningful consultation or engagement. He said it involves parties exchanging views over a matter. “In this case our view is that there has not been any meaningful consultation,” he said of the Public Service Act pending amendments. What the union federation says about the bill
In a letter to DPSM Director Ruth Maphorisa, BOFEPUSU say they want her to share their reasons for seeking to depart from the existing practice, as per the 2008 Act, in appointing the PSBC Secretariat. In light of this the union stated: “the selection of the secretary of the council has since the inception of the PSBC been the joint responsibility of both government as well as Trade Unions sitting at the PSBC. Additionally, the discharge of the role has never been restricted to public servants.”
In another issue, the union says PSBC has been functioning effectively as a forum for dispute resolution, and it assists with evenly distributing the workload of dispute resolution. “The PSBC is especially the more ideal forum for public servants with grievances against the government as the officers presiding over the disputes are not public servants. It is furthermore open to everyone regardless of whether they are unionised or not and regardless of whether their union forms part of the PSBC,” they contended.
The union asked Maphorisa to shed more light in terms of the rationale for proposing the change so that they may make meaningful representations in respect of the same. “The aforementioned proposed amendment runs contrary to the spirit of negotiating in good faith. The hallmark of negotiating in good faith is that an employer must not take any steps averse to the party negotiating on behalf of its members.” They also asked the DPSM Director to confer a benefit on employees whilst negotiations are ongoing saying it makes a complete mockery of the entire bargaining process and it automatically tilts the scales in favour of government.
They continued: “clause 79 (1) provides that recognition will entitle a union to one seat at the PSBC. The implication of this provision is simply that a union like the National Amalgamated Local, Central Government and Parastatal Workers Union (NALCGPWU”) which has more than 20,000 members will have the same voice as a union like Trainers and Allied Workers Union (“TAWU”) which has less than 200 members.”
With this in mind, BOFEPUSU explained that they failed to appreciate the rationale behind granting a union whose members represent a negligible percentage of the entire workforce the opportunity to speak on behalf of everyone else. They also pointed out that clause 74 incorporates a proviso restricting representatives of trade unions admitted to the PSBC to public officers. “We would like to understand why there has been a drastic departure from ILO standards as well as local case law which has authoritatively pronounced on this issue,” the union highlighted.
They emphasised that the ILO position is to encourage collective bargaining as well as its autonomy. Article 3 of the ILO of 98, they said, provides as follows: Article 3. (1) “Workers' and employers' organisations shall have the right to draw up their constitutions and rules, to elect their representatives in full freedom, to organise their administration and activities and to formulate their programmes. 3. (2) the public authorities shall refrain from any interference which would restrict this right or impede the lawful exercise thereof.”
According to BOFEPUSU, the issues they raised constitute some of concerns in relation to the proposed bill. In light of the foregoing, he said it is critical that government shares what informed the proposed change.
While it takes a lot to penetrate and thrive in the male dominated political space in Botswana, Block 3 Ward councillor Motamma Horatius, is one of the few females defying the odds.
Driven by passion, Horatius has always worn many hats and today she has become one of the few women who are thriving in the political space in Botswana. Prior to pursuing politics, she was an active participated in the creative space.
Horatius, a beauty queen, notably famous for her reign as Miss World Tourism Botswana represented Botswana in a television show famously known as Big Brother Africa. During her stay in the house, she got termed darling of the continent for an outstanding performance that promoted unity, humility and culture.
After serving for some time in public space, and making a name for herself as well as serving as a brand ambassador she decided to step in a career that will forever challenge her. This was after she had travelled the world and demonstrated her unique leadership skills and brilliance.
“I stopped and asked myself why am I not incorporating this brilliance back home. And wherever you go worldwide Botswana with all her faults is a beacon of hope in everything. And even successful countries came here to benchmark and implemented our policies and are flourishing such as Rwanda. So I decided to join active politics and go straight to the ruling party to add a youthful feel to an already existing force and help modernise it to serve better not from afar but from within,” she clarified.
“So my ample experience in civic leadership across countries around the world catapulted me to join active politics because I wondered, if I can do as much as an individual even across nations, how much can I do whilst in office, locally. And I chose to start from the ground up, in order to avoid leaving the locals behind.”
The stern and tenacious young leader, currently sit as the Chairperson of Finance Committee at Gaborone City Council, and also chairs Performance Monitoring Committee.
While a typical girl would dream of becoming either a nurse or choose a ‘girl’ orientated deemed career, she had a heart for politics from a very young age. By the time she left the creative space, she had already made a name for herself, that she needed no introduction.
“I had to acknowledge first that I am a woman, and being a woman means you have to work 200 percent more than your male counterparts. So it took sleeplessness nights, and a massive amount of working smart to win legitimately,” she said.
She acknowledges that she faced a lot of challenges during the 2019 elections which she had to overcome through the assistance of her loved ones and family.
“Politics is expensive but I managed by God’s grace, family, friends, acquaintances and good Samaritans but my mind helped. I am a very good planner when it comes to execution,” she said.
“Another hurdle is, being a young woman, I had conceived during the time of primary elections; so campaigning whilst expectant, managing your emotions through betrayals, insults, stress, house-to-house then giving birth and having to hit the ground in less than two weeks having given birth via C-section, was a hurdle I overcame by God’s mercy and I am thankful to my family for helping me with the kids because politics means a lot of time away from home.”
“Another hurdle was to portray an all rounded culturally grounded Motswana woman soft but yet stern, respectful but can articulate issues well. Because even though we are civilized our society still upholds unwritten yet practiced values of what a woman is and what a man is, and if you defy societal expectations, it judges you harshly. But thankfully I remained focused on who I was and didn’t try alternate anything When I lost some of the original members of my campaign team. The pain was deep. But I wiped my tears. Soldiered on, and God increased twice the initial number.”
At some point she had to face demeaning words from other male contestants, but the best to do at the time was to shun negativity and stay focused. Male intimidation never tugged her down.
“My experience with 2019 elections was rather inclined to learning as it was my first time running for office as a politician, so I wanted to see if really hard work has results because I always hear stories of how people are bought,” she said.
“So since I was not buying anyone, I was on a learning curve to test my hard work style of delivery against what is believed out there. So it was exciting and again I say it was a learning curve as most NGOs fighting to increase women participation in politics were continuously training us.’
Despite everything she feels women political participation in Botswana is still low. She has pleaded with the media to cover them more often as she believes maybe it will help more women to run for office.
Botswana has few women in parliament, giving men dominance in policy decisions. In a 63-seat parliament, Botswana has only seven female MPs, four of them being specially elected lawmakers.
According to the 2019 edition of the biennial Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) Map of Women in Politics. Among the top African countries with a high percentage of women in ministerial positions are Rwanda (51.9%), South Africa (48.6%), Ethiopia (47.6%), Seychelles (45.5%), Uganda (36.7%) and Mali (34.4%).
The lowest percentage in Africa was in Morocco (5.6%), which has only one female minister in a cabinet of 18.
Other countries with fewer than 10% women ministers include Nigeria (8%), Mauritius (8.7%) and Sudan (9.5%).Other African countries with high percentages of women MPs include Namibia (46.2%), South Africa (42.7%) and Senegal (41.8%), according to the report.
Though a slight increase, Botswana is still lagging behind when it comes to women political participation.
According to a report made by IEC for the 2019 elections, there is 11.1% women representation in parliament. There has been a 1.6% slight increase from the 2019 election compared to the 2014 elections.
According to United Nations, there are two main obstacles that prevent women from participating fully in political life.
These are structural barriers, whereby discriminatory laws and institutions still limit women’s ability to run for office, and capacity gaps, which occur when women are less likely than men to have the education, contacts and resources needed to become effective leaders.
As it stands though, Botswana has continued to recognize gender equality as central to socio-economic, political and cultural development through its National Vision 2036.
Following the adoption of the National Policy on Gender and Development in 2015, the National Gender Commission was established in September 2016, to monitor implementation of the policy.
Government ministries and departments have moved to cut expenditure in the last quarter of financial year in order to survive the economic hardship occasioned by the covid-19 pandemic. Since the outbreak, Government and the private sector have been hard hit financially due to limited economic activity brought about by government response to fighting the pandemic.
In an urgent savingram by the Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, Molefi Keaja addressed to all council secretaries and town clerks, the government informs that it is facing unprecedented budgetary challenges for Financial Year 2020/2021.
“This has necessitated measures to be put in place to conserve cash and ensure that government is able to honour its financial obligations in the remaining (3) months of the financial year,” said the savingram dated 24 December 2020.
The Government has cut all travel by Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) including State owned entities (SOEs) and Local Authorities until the next financial year in April 2021. It has also taken a decision that all meetings, interviews, seminars, workshops, conferences, retreats, annual ceremonies and hospitality events should be conducted virtually, which save on the cost of securing venues, conference facilities and meals/refreshments.
“No replenishment of refreshments for the Executive Cadre (E2 salary scale and above) until the end of the financial year,” Keaja directed. Last year government also resolved that due to the financial effects of Covid-19 the government will no longer recruit for any jobs during the 2020/2021 financial year.
The Cabinet directed that the 2020/2021 provision for vacancies be withdrawn from Ministries, Departments and Agencies recurrent budgets to cater for supplementary estimates. According to the saving gram then by the Directorate on Public Service Management (DPSM) said the country faces fiscal challenges which have been accentuated by the emergence and the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Amongst key ministries and departments affected were the Botswana Defence Force, National Strategy Office, Directorate of Intelligence and Security (DIS), Commissioner of Police, Commissioner of Prisons, Clerk of National Assembly and the Directorate on Corruption & Economic Crime (DCEC).
It further deliberated that all various institutions that had begun recruitment for existing vacant positions be frozen for the remaining period of the 2020/2021 financial year. “Since funds for the vacancies will only be recruited in the next financial year 2020/20121, Ministries, Department and Agencies are advised to discontinue recruitment into such vacancies until 1st April 2021. Those who are already at an advanced stage of recruitment process are advised to withhold appointments until further notice.”
The Director of Directorate on Public Service Management (DPSM), Goitseone Mosalakatane, told the parliamentary Public Accounts Committee (PAC) in September that despite the high unemployment rate, they cannot hire for the posts because part of the funds have been withdrawn to fight the Coronavirus.
With just a few days into the New Year, Covid-19 seems to be taking its toll and its effects will be felt vastly in the long run. Countries worldwide, including Botswana are injecting in millions of money in the fight against the deadly virus therefore placing immense uncertainty on country’s economy.
When delivering his speech at last year’s State of Nation Address President Mokgweetsi Masisi said during 2020, the domestic economy was expected to contract by 8.9 percent indicating that this is attributed to an expected sharp decline in major sectors such as mining, (minus 24.5 percent); trade, hotels and restaurants (minus 27.4 percent); construction (minus 6 percent); manufacturing (minus 3.9 percent); and transport and communications (minus 2.5 percent).
However, he assured that the economy is expected to rebound during 2021, with overall growth projected at 7.7 percent. The anticipated recovery will be driven by a rebound in growth of some major sectors such as mining (14.4 percent), trade, hotels and restaurants (18.8 percent), and transport and communications (4.2 percent).
Furthermore, Masisi pointed out that the recovery will also be supported by the Economic Recovery and Transformation Plan currently being implemented by Government. “It is critical to note that these projections are dependent on, among others, the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions.
These containment measures have the effect of reducing spending by firms and households and causing supply-chain disruptions. Beyond this, the recovery phase will be influenced by confidence effects on households and businesses; sectoral transformation and changes in work patterns; as well as prospects for the recovery of global financial markets and commodity prices.”
Emphasising this, he explained that despite the challenges of COVID-19 there still remains the delicate balance of opening the economy whilst containing the disease burden. “Inflation according to the latest data from Statistics Botswana, inflation fell significantly from 2.2 percent in September 2019 to 1.8 percent in September 2020, remaining below the lower bound of the Bank of Botswana’s medium-term objective range of 3 to 6 percent,” he said.
The significant decline in inflation mainly reflects the downward adjustment in fuel prices in June 2020. However, inflation may rise above the current forecasts if the international commodity prices increase beyond current projections and in the event of upward price pressures occasioned by supply constraints due to travel restrictions and lockdowns.
The Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) last year had to cancel its elective congress due to the strict measures that had to be put in place due to Covid-19 pandemic outbreak.
Two other party events Women’s Wing Congress including the much anticipated victorious election celebration were also postponed due to the pandemic as gatherings were cancelled indefinitely. However the BDP is adamant that the party will be able to hold its National Congress and all other events that had been frozen this year.
Speaking to this publication chairman of BDP Communication & International Relations Sub-Committee Kagelelo Kentse said that the party was readying itself for the congress with the main objective being to review resolutions that were taken at their 38th National Congress in Mochudi in 2019. Emphasising this, Kentse said it was commendable that most of the resolutions taken in 2019 have by far been fulfilled.
Moreover, he said it would mean a lot for the party to be able to meet at the congress, this he said would give them the opportunity to introspect and reflect with regards to their manifesto. In 2019 the BDP made about eleven resolutions of which five of these were resolved and gazetted. The abridged resolutions were that the amendment of the law to allow agricultural land owners to use up to 50 percent of their land for non-core purposes, to amend the law to cancel transfer duty on property transferred between the spouses.
President Masisi also passed a law to allow married couples to be independently allocated land and increase threshold for non-payment of transfer on property acquired from P250k to P750k. On the resolution in the tourism sector, Kentse said efforts are very advanced to have local play a part. He said there is ongoing work with the Ministry of Lands on concessions that will be allocated to citizens.
According to the BDP communications chair the Ministry of Tourism has availed more opportunities in dams for tourism thus far, having already issued expression of interest for Letsibogo, Dikgatlhong, and Gaborone dams. Citizens are said to have applied for tenders which are currently under evaluation. There are about 45 campsites set aside for citizens in game reserves and forest reserves for tourism.
The resolution on the declaration of assets and liabilities law which was passed and amended this year, was supported by all legislators including those from opposition. Emphasising this he explained that contentions were on issues to do with valuations, and leaders have started declaring.
With the Congress comprising of the elective congress, the BDP is yet to embark on it an objective Kentse said is on their to do list this year even though the calendar of events has not yet been made. The elective congress has aroused interest, especially the Secretary General position which has attracted a number of participants of which observers believe will accord the incumbent, Mpho Balopi, the current secretary general, the opportunity to buy time if at all he will seek re-election in the position.