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Another alternative economic model is possible



The economic system or mode of production that dominates the contemporary world today is seldom called by its proper name.  We hear of the market economy or free enterprise system.  It is true that in all modern economies markets are critical and ubiquitous’ institutions nearly all aspects of production and distribution involve buying and selling, the activities that define markets.

The phrase free enterprise is still less informative.  Certainly not everyone is free to begin an economic enterprise, except in a completely abstract sense.  The economic system or mode of production that dominates the world today is capitalism.  It is not a very old mode of production, although debate rage, over how old it is and where it began.  Most historians believe that capitalism originated in what is today Western Europe.  The economic system it supplanted in Europe is known as feudalism which was land based mode of production centered around large agricultural estates called Manors. 

These Manors were controlled, though not owned in a modern capitalist sense, by a group of nobles and the work of growing food and producing everything else was done by force, the manner in which feudalism collapsed and capitalism arose is complex and a matter of considerable disagreement among scholars. However, we can make four general comments on what is called the transition from feudalism to capitalism, which occurred roughly from fifteenth to the nineteenth century. First, as capitalism developed the feudal manors gradually became private property, in the modern sense that the property could be sold and no social obligations went along with its ownership.

Second, as land was transformed into property a new class of persons with no access to property was created.  This landless class was the working class and its members were able to live only by selling their ability to work, their labour power to those who did own property.  Third creation of both private property and working class was everywhere accompanied, indeed made possible by massive force and violence.  Serfs had to be compelled to give up their long standing right to use land.  The more powerful class of property owners either used direct violence against serfs or secured the power of newly created central government to do their dirty work. 

Often times, government, enacted laws that amounted to legal coercion.  Before capitalism, serfs had the right to use manors common land, those parts of the manors not planted with crops and often used to gather firewood and water or hunt and trap animals. In the interest of property owners, governments enacted laws that converted common land into private property and made the use of land by non owners a crime, sometimes punishable by death.  A peasant who formerly had trapped animals for food on the common land might now be hanged for doing so.

Fourth and of great importance capitalist economies were from the beginning expansionary from English, Holland, France and the other early capitalists nation, capitalism began to spread around the globe. Michael D. Yates is right to argue the capitalism was born in theft and would not have been possible without it. Simply, stated those who are interested in capitalist mode of production want to steal. Today this theft is carried out through multinational co-operations. After the collapse the Soviet Union, Western propaganda machinery was all over informing the world that socialism has failed.      

What their handlers deliberately hide from them is the fact that it took North America three hundred (300) years of free slave labour to be so rich and is still stealing natural resources from African, Middle east and Asia to grow its economy. Did socialism really fail? Although this is a discussion for another time, Socialism as Nyerere has rightly argued is an attitude of mind, like capitalism is an attitude.  An attitude never dies! We shall always have people with capitalists’ attitudes and Socialists attitudes of minds. 

What happed was the collapsed of the union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) scholars differs on factors which led to the collapsed of the USSR but agree on three main ones, namely first economic and psychological war waged by capitalist countries against the USSR. Secondly, lack of ownership of personal properties like houses and third lack of freedom to travel.  My argument which is the subject of this paper is that there is a third way for economic development.  And this third way can borrow what is required from capitalism and also from socialism. 

 This anti-greed economic system is African and Christian.  This system should replace consumer economy of market with the anti-greed economy of sharing.  When I grew up as an African Child, I knew what belong to the family belong to us all. And a family here I am talking among more than fifty or even more, bo malome, bo rakgadi, bo mangwane, ditlogolo, bo  nkuku, jalo jalo. Sharing is in our DNA as Africans because we belong to one family.

Ka Setswana, Bangwato ke bo ntsala Bakgatla, Balete ke bo ntsala Bahurutshe.  Bayei ke bo ntsala Basarwa, Baherero ke bo ntsala Bambukushu, Batawana ke ditlogolo tsa Bakwena, Bangwaketsi ke bo ntsala Barolong.  Setswana sare motho ga nke a tima ntsalae! Gape sare setlogolo ntsha ditlhogo! Sera ngwana malome nnyala gore kgomo di boele sakeng!  All these are source of our anti-greed economic of sharing.

From a Christian point of view, Christ teaching is the source of anti-greed economic system.  The story on Mark 10:17-22 says it all.“A man ran up to him, and asked, Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?  And Jesus said to him why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone” you know the commandments:                                                                                                    

Do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal, do not give false testimony, do not defraud, honour your father and mother, and he said to him, teacher all these I have kept since I was a boy and  Jesus said to him you lack one thing.  Go, sell everything you have and give to the poor and you have treasure in heaven and come follow me. At this word the man’s face fell and he went away sad because he had great wealth.  For us in Botswana who live in a society where conspicuous consumption is a sign of status and is believed to be the source of all well being, this story of Mark can be a profoundly disturbing text. 


You lack one thing Go, sell offers everything you have and give to the poor.  In doing this Jesus as Fernando Belo points out, the young rich Messianic reading of his practice.  Here, the ethic of the law he has been following is found to be inadequate. Leaving/following are the dialectically related negative and positive moments of the appropriate response every call to follow Jesus.  Jesus invites us to leave the security offered by wealth, status or achievement to trust solely in God’s providential care. 

This risk the young man is unable to take his inability comes from his attachment to money and comfort, status and security it brings.  It is the outcome of a system which has instilled and which continues to nourish it.  A Belo put it: the dominant codes of his society and ours have gained the upper hand over him. Jesus does not say go and give them blankets or diphapha.  He says go and sell everything you have and give to the poor not what you have been given by the business community but sell what you have and give to the poor!

What we need is not only the socialists or capitalists attitudes but ant-greed attitude.  The anti-greed attitude which Jesus requires is an expression of trust in the unique good way of God, to which Jesus refers in the very first words he speaks in the story, no one is good except God alone (10.17). Such an anti-greed attitude is nourished by a concern for the poor.  Jesus’ option for the poor, conspicuous in his life and teaching – for his life we know, was lived out in a progressive identification with the needy and the out cast, an on going journey from the centre to the periphery cross, beyond which no further movement was possible, for Jesus, was here locally outcast and wholly poor.

The Christians ethos is an ethos of anti-greed.  The African ethos is an ethos of anti-greed.  In my view it is not enough to say as Rre Ntuane always want to remind us that BDP is a member of socialists international or what Rre Moetsi Monwasa always tell the nation that UDC has adopted a social democratic programme.  What Batswana want to see now is concrete realities, a change of mind set, a paradigm shift, a new way of doing things.

There is a need for change of mind. Fear of change and loss is not necessarily a response that gives proof of people natural conservatives for in spite of the unemployment many people have found within consumers capitalism real relief from an older poverty. This  predisposes them to look upon the system as progressive, and they are the more inclined to accept its version of common sense , its logic in pursuit of ends which unlike, perhaps, at earlier time. The system has not been slow to make advantage of this more general public acceptance of the exigencies of capital.

The most argent purpose of any real alternative must be to demonstrate the necessity of disengagement from these processes, and in such a way that it can be slow to be not impoverishment or loss, but liberation. For we are dealing with what Rudolf Bahoro has called the occupied regions of our consciousness.

What does this means is that we must liberate ourselves from the chains of wealth. To think that without wealth we are nothing, otherwise we shall continue to accumulate wealth at the expense of others and we remain greedy. And even if we give others diphaphata and give ourselves aeroplanes we are not ashamed because part of consciousness has been occupied by greediness. 

The first step in this direction is for all leaders, starting from Councilors, members of parliament, central committee member of all parties to declare their assets and liabilities and most importantly declaration of all gifts which are more than one hundred pula. What Batswana don’t like to see is BDP rule beyond October 2019, or UDC to win and Batswana losses.

Batswana must win not BDP or UDC in 2019.  Batswana must be given a chance to debate about their future.  We are talking about our lives, our country and the future of generation to come, so we got nothing to fear.  People should know that we are here not to do anybody any favour but our country. The under informed and misinformed African leaders think that capitalism is God created system and to opposites it is to oppose God’s will, and thus other systems cannot work.  They are told that capitalism is the solution, a key to prosperity.

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Fuelling Change: The Evolving Dynamics of the Oil and Gas Industry

4th April 2023

The Oil and Gas industry has undergone several significant developments and changes over the last few years. Understanding these developments and trends is crucial towards better appreciating how to navigate the engagement in this space, whether directly in the energy space or in associated value chain roles such as financing.

Here, we explore some of the most notable global events and trends and the potential impact or bearing they have on the local and global market.

Governments and companies around the world have been increasingly focused on transitioning towards renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. This shift is motivated by concerns about climate change and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Africa, including Botswana, is part of these discussions, as we work to collectively ensure a greener and more sustainable future. Indeed, this is now a greater priority the world over. It aligns closely with the increase in Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing being observed. ESG investing has become increasingly popular, and many investors are now looking for companies that are focused on sustainability and reducing their carbon footprint. This trend could have significant implications for the oil and fuel industry, which is often viewed as environmentally unsustainable. Relatedly and equally key are the evolving government policies. Government policies and regulations related to the Oil and Gas industry are likely to continue evolving with discussions including incentives for renewable energy and potentially imposing stricter regulations on emissions.

The COVID-19 pandemic has also played a strong role. Over the last two years, the pandemic had a profound impact on the Oil and Gas industry (and fuel generally), leading to a significant drop in demand as travel and economic activity slowed down. As a result, oil prices plummeted, with crude oil prices briefly turning negative in April 2020. Most economies have now vaccinated their populations and are in recovery mode, and with the recovery of the economies, there has been recovery of oil prices; however, the pace and sustainability of recovery continues to be dependent on factors such as emergence of new variants of the virus.

This period, which saw increased digital transformation on the whole, also saw accelerated and increased investment in technology. The Oil and Gas industry is expected to continue investing in new digital technologies to increase efficiency and reduce costs. This also means a necessary understanding and subsequent action to address the impacts from the rise of electric vehicles. The growing popularity of electric vehicles is expected to reduce demand for traditional gasoline-powered cars. This has, in turn, had an impact on the demand for oil.

Last but not least, geopolitical tensions have played a tremendous role. Geopolitical tensions between major oil-producing countries can and has impacted the supply of oil and fuel. Ongoing tensions in the Middle East and between the US and Russia could have an impact on global oil prices further, and we must be mindful of this.

On the home front in Botswana, all these discussions are relevant and the subject of discussion in many corporate and even public sector boardrooms. Stanbic Bank Botswana continues to take a lead in supporting the Oil and Gas industry in its current state and as it evolves and navigates these dynamics. This is through providing financing to support Oil and Gas companies’ operations, including investments in new technologies. The Bank offers risk management services to help oil and gas companies to manage risks associated with price fluctuations, supply chain disruptions and regulatory changes. This includes offering hedging products and providing advice on risk management strategies.

Advisory and support for sustainability initiatives that the industry undertakes is also key to ensuring that, as companies navigate complex market conditions, they are more empowered to make informed business decisions. It is important to work with Oil and Gas companies to develop and implement sustainability strategies, such as reducing emissions and increasing the use of renewable energy. This is key to how partners such as Stanbic Bank work to support the sector.

Last but not least, Stanbic Bank stands firmly in support of Botswana’s drive in the development of the sector with the view to attain better fuel security and reduce dependence risk on imported fuel. This is crucial towards ensuring a stronger, stabler market, and a core aspect to how we can play a role in helping drive Botswana’s growth.  Continued understanding, learning, and sustainable action are what will help ensure the Oil and Gas sector is supported towards positive, sustainable and impactful growth in a manner that brings social, environmental and economic benefit.

Loago Tshomane is Manager, Client Coverage, Corporate and Investment Banking (CIB), Stanbic Bank Botswana

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Brands are important

27th March 2023

So, the conclusion is brands are important. I start by concluding because one hopes this is a foregone conclusion given the furore that erupts over a botched brand. If a fast food chef bungles a food order, there’d be possibly some isolated complaint thrown. However, if the same company’s marketing expert or agency cooks up a tasteless brand there is a country-wide outcry. Why?  Perhaps this is because brands affect us more deeply than we care to understand or admit. The fact that the uproar might be equal parts of schadenfreude, black twitter-esque criticism and, disappointment does not take away from the decibel of concern raised.

A good place to start our understanding of a brand is naturally by defining what a brand is. Marty Neumier, the genius who authored The Brand Gap, offers this instructive definition – “A brand is a person’s gut feel about a product or service”. In other words, a brand is not what the company says it is. It is what the people feel it is. It is the sum total of what it means to them. Brands are perceptions. So, brands are defined by individuals not companies. But brands are owned by companies not individuals. Brands are crafted in privacy but consumed publicly. Brands are communal. Granted, you say. But that doesn’t still explain why everybody and their pet dog feel entitled to jump in feet first into a brand slug-fest armed with a hot opinion. True. But consider the following truism.


Brands are living. They act as milestones in our past. They are signposts of our identity. Beacons of our triumphs. Indexes of our consumption. Most importantly, they have invaded our very words and world view. Try going for just 24 hours without mentioning a single brand name. Quite difficult, right? Because they live among us they have become one of us. And we have therefore built ‘brand bonds’ with them. For example, iPhone owners gather here. You love your iPhone. It goes everywhere. You turn to it in moments of joy and when we need a quick mood boost. Notice how that ‘relationship’ started with desire as you longingly gazed upon it in a glossy brochure. That quickly progressed to asking other people what they thought about it. Followed by the zero moment of truth were you committed and voted your approval through a purchase. Does that sound like a romantic relationship timeline. You bet it does. Because it is. When we conduct brand workshops we run the Brand Loyalty ™ exercise wherein we test people’s loyalty to their favourite brand(s). The results are always quite intriguing. Most people are willing to pay a 40% premium over the standard price for ‘their’ brand. They simply won’t easily ‘breakup’ with it. Doing so can cause brand ‘heart ache’. There is strong brand elasticity for loved brands.


Now that we know brands are communal and endeared, then companies armed with this knowledge, must exercise caution and practise reverence when approaching the subject of rebranding. It’s fragile. The question marketers ought to ask themselves before gleefully jumping into the hot rebranding cauldron is – Do we go for an Evolution (partial rebrand) or a Revolution(full rebrand)? An evolution is incremental. It introduces small but significant changes or additions to the existing visual brand. Here, think of the subtle changes you’ve seen in financial or FMCG brands over the decades. Evolution allows you to redirect the brand without alienating its horde of faithful followers. As humans we love the familiar and certain. Change scares us. Especially if we’ve not been privy to the important but probably blinkered ‘strategy sessions’ ongoing behind the scenes. Revolutions are often messy. They are often hard reset about-turns aiming for a total new look and ‘feel’.



Hard rebranding is risky business. History is littered with the agony of brands large and small who felt the heat of public disfavour. In January 2009, PepsiCo rebranded the Tropicana. When the newly designed package hit the shelves, consumers were not having it. The New York Times reports that ‘some of the commenting described the new packaging as ‘ugly’ ‘stupid’. They wanted their old one back that showed a ripe orange with a straw in it. Sales dipped 20%. PepsiCo reverted to the old logo and packaging within a month. In 2006 Mastercard had to backtrack away from it’s new logo after public criticism, as did Leeds United, and the clothing brand Gap. AdAge magazine reports that critics most common sentiment about the Gap logo was that it looked like something a child had created using a clip-art gallery. Botswana is no different. University of Botswana had to retreat into the comfort of the known and accepted heritage strong brand.  Sir Ketumile Masire Teaching Hospital was badgered with complaints till it ‘adjusted’ its logo.



So if the landscape of rebranding is so treacherous then whey take the risk? Companies need to soberly assess they need for a rebrand. According to the fellows at Ignyte Branding a rebrand is ignited by the following admissions :

Our brand name no longer reflects our company’s vision.
We’re embarrassed to hand out our business cards.

Our competitive advantage is vague or poorly articulated.
Our brand has lost focus and become too complex to understand. Our business model or strategy has changed.
Our business has outgrown its current brand.
We’re undergoing or recently underwent a merger or acquisition. Our business has moved or expanded its geographic reach.
We need to disassociate our brand from a negative image.
We’re struggling to raise our prices and increase our profit margins. We want to expand our influence and connect to new audiences. We’re not attracting top talent for the positions we need to fill. All the above are good reasons to rebrand.

The downside to this debacle is that companies genuinely needing to rebrand might be hesitant or delay it altogether. The silver lining I guess is that marketing often mocked for its charlatans, is briefly transformed from being the Archilles heel into Thanos’ glove in an instant.

So what does a company need to do to safely navigate the rebranding terrain? Companies need to interrogate their brand purpose thoroughly. Not what they think they stand for but what they authentically represent when seen through the lens of their team members. In our Brand Workshop we use a number of tools to tease out the compelling brand truth. This section always draws amusing insights. Unfailingly, the top management (CEO & CFO)always has a vastly different picture of their brand to the rest of their ExCo and middle management, as do they to the customer-facing officer. We have only come across one company that had good internal alignment. Needless to say that brand is doing superbly well.

There is need a for brand strategies to guide the brand. One observes that most brands ‘make a plan’ as they go along. Little or no deliberate position on Brand audit, Customer research, Brand positioning and purpose, Architecture, Messaging, Naming, Tagline, Brand Training and may more. A brand strategy distils why your business exists beyond making money – its ‘why’. It defines what makes your brand what it is, what differentiates it from the competition and how you want your customers to perceive it. Lacking a brand strategy disadvantages the company in that it appears soul-less and lacking in personality. Naturally, people do not like to hang around humans with nothing to say. A brand strategy understands the value proposition. People don’t buy nails for the nails sake. They buy nails to hammer into the wall to hang pictures of their loved ones. People don’t buy make up because of its several hues and shades. Make up is self-expression. Understanding this arms a brand with an iron clad clad strategy on the brand battlefield.

But perhaps you’ve done the important research and strategy work. It’s still possible to bungle the final look and feel.  A few years ago one large brand had an extensive strategy done. Hopes were high for a top tier brand reveal. The eventual proposed brand was lack-lustre. I distinctly remember, being tasked as local agency to ‘land’ the brand and we outright refused. We could see this was a disaster of epic proportions begging to happen. The brand consultants were summoned to revise the logo. After a several tweaks and compromises the brand landed. It currently exists as one of the country’s largest brands. Getting the logo and visual look right is important. But how does one know if they are on the right path? Using the simile of a brand being a person – The answer is how do you know your outfit is right? It must serve a function, be the right fit and cut, it must be coordinated and lastly it must say something about you. So it is possible to bath in a luxurious bath gel, apply exotic lotion, be facebeat and still somehow wear a faux pas outfit. Avoid that.

Another suggestion is to do the obvious. Pre-test the logo and its look and feel on a cross section of your existing and prospective audience. There are tools to do this. Their feedback can save you money, time and pain. Additionally one must do another obvious check – use Google Image to verify the visual outcome and plain Google search to verify the name. These are so obvious they are hopefully for gone conclusions. But for the brands that have gone ahead without them, I hope you have not concluded your brand journeys as there is a world of opportunity waiting to be unlocked with the right brand strategy key.

Cliff Mada is Head of ArmourGetOn Brand Consultancy, based in Gaborone and Cape Town.

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The case for Botswana to ratify the ACDEG

6th March 2023

The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is the most comprehensive dataset measuring African governance performance through a wide range of 81 indicators under the categories of Security & Rule of law, Participation, Rights & Inclusion, Foundations of Economic Opportunity, and Human Development. It employs scores, expressed out of 100, which quantify a country’s performance for each governance measure and ranks, out of 54, in relation to the 54 African countries.

The 2022 IIAG Overall Governance score is 68.1 and ranks Botswana at number 5 in Africa. In 2019 Botswana was ranked 2nd with an overall score of 73.3. That is a sharp decline. The best-performing countries are Mauritius, Seychelles, Tunisia, and Cabo Verde, in that order. A glance at the categories shows that Botswana is in third place in Africa on the Security and Rule of law; ninth in the Participation, Rights & Inclusion Category – indicating a shrinking participatory environment; eighth for Foundations of Economic Opportunity category; and fifth in the Human Development category.

The 2022 IIAG comes to a sweeping conclusion: Governments are less accountable and transparent in 2021 than at any time over the last ten years; Higher GDP does not necessarily indicate better governance; rule of law has weakened in the last five years; Democratic backsliding in Africa has accelerated since 2018; Major restrictions on freedom of association and assembly since 2012. Botswana is no exception to these conclusions. In fact, a look at the 10-year trend shows a major challenge. While Botswana remains in the top 5 of the best-performing countries in Africa, there are signs of decline, especially in the categories of Human Development and Security & Rule of law.

I start with this picture to show that Botswana is no longer the poster child for democracy, good governance, and commitment to the rule of law that it once was. In fact, to use the term used in the IIAG, Botswana is experiencing a “democratic backsliding.”

The 2021 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index (CPI) had Botswana at 55/ 100, the lowest ever score recorded by Botswana dethroning Botswana as Africa’s least corrupt country to a distant third place, where it was in 2019 with a CPI of 61/100. (A score closer to zero denotes the worst corrupt and a score closer to 100 indicates the least corrupt country). The concern here is that while other African states are advancing in their transparency and accountability indexes, Botswana is backsliding.

The Transitional National Development Plan lists participatory democracy, the rule of law, transparency, and accountability, as key “deliverables,” if you may call those deliverables. If indeed Botswana is committed to these principles, she must ratify the African Charter on Democracy Elections and Governance (ACDEG).

The African Charter on Democracy Elections and Governance is the African Union’s principal policy document for advancing democratic governance in African Union member states. The ACDEG embodies the continent’s commitment to a democratic agenda and set the standards upon which countries agreed to be held accountable. The Charter was adopted in 2007 and came into force a decade ago, in 2012.

Article 2 of the Charter details its objectives among others as to a) Promote adherence, by each State Party, to the universal values and principles of democracy and respect for human rights; b) Promote and protect the independence of the judiciary; c) Promote the establishment of the necessary conditions to foster citizen participation, transparency, access to information, freedom of the press and accountability in the management of public affairs; d) Promote gender balance and equality in the governance and development processes.

The Charter emphasizes certain principles through which member states must uphold: Citizen Participation, Accountable Institutions, Respect for Human Rights, Adherence to the principles of the Rule of Law, Respect for the supremacy of the constitution and constitutional order, Entrenchment of democratic Principles, Separation of Powers, Respect for the Judiciary, Independence and impartiality of electoral bodies, best practice in the management of elections. These are among the top issues that Batswana have been calling for, that they be entrenched in the new Constitution.

The ACDEG is a revolutionary document. Article 3 of the ACDEG, sets guidance on the principles that must guide the implementation of the Charter among them: Effective participation of citizens in democratic and development processes and in the governance of public affairs; Promotion of a system of government that is representative; Holding of regular, transparent, free and fair elections; Separation of powers; Promotion of gender equality in public and private institutions and others.

Batswana have been calling for laws that make it mandatory for citizen participation in public affairs, more so, such calls have been amplified in the just-ended “consultative process” into the review of the Constitution of Botswana. Many scholars, academics, and Batswana, in general, have consistently made calls for a constitution that provides for clear separation of powers to prevent concentration of power in one branch, in Botswana’s case, the Executive, and provide for effective checks and balances. Other countries, like Kenya, have laws that promote gender equality in public and private institutions inscribed in their constitutions. The ACDEG could be a useful advocacy tool for the promotion of gender equality.

Perhaps more relevant to Botswana’s situation now is Article 10 of the Charter. Given how the constitutional review process unfolded, the numerous procedural mistakes and omissions, the lack of genuine consultations, the Charter principles could have provided a direction, if Botswana was party to the Charter. “State Parties shall ensure that the process of amendment or revision of their constitution reposes on national consensus, obtained, if need be, through referendum,” reads part of Article 10, giving clear clarity, that the Constitution belong to the people.

With the African Charter on Democracy Elections and Governance in hand, ratified, and also given the many shortfalls in the current constitution, Batswana can have a tool in hand, not only to hold the government accountable but also a tool for measuring aspirations and shortfalls of our governance institutional framework.

Botswana has not signed, nor has it acceded or ratified the ACDEG. The time to ratify the ACDEG is now. Our Movement, Motheo O Mosha Society, with support from the Democracy Works Foundation and The Charter Project Africa, will run a campaign to promote, popularise and advocate for the ratification of the Charter (#RatifytheCharter Campaign). The initiative is co-founded by the European Union. The Campaign is implemented with the support of our sister organizations: Global Shapers Community – Gaborone Hub, #FamilyMeetingBW, Botswana Center for Public Integrity, Black Roots Organization, Economic Development Forum, Molao-Matters, WoTech Foundation, University of Botswana Political Science Society, Young Minds Africa and Branding Akosua.

Ratifying the Charter would reaffirm Botswana’s commitment to upholding strong democratic values, and respect for constitutionalism, and promote the rule of law and political accountability. Join us in calling the Government of Botswana to #RatifyTheCharter.

*Morena MONGANJA is the Chairperson of Motheo O Mosha society; a grassroots movement advocating for a new Constitution for Botswana. Contact: or WhatsApp 77 469 362.

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