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Analogue-to-digital migration gulped P180 million

Government through the Department of Information Services under the Ministry of Presidential Affairs, Governance and Public Administration has already spent over P180 million on analogue to digital transformation.

The analogue-digital migration went live in June 2015 after the recognition of the need to free up space in the frequency spectrum to enable achievement of the information and technology communication (ICT) service and for more television channels that could not be accommodated under the analogue setup.

The Transition was and is still believed to present an opportunity for the country to strengthen Botswana Television (BTV) viewership through additional services and content for both local and international viewers. To be able to implement digital transformation, countries had to make choices with respect to technical standards that were recommended by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

Back in 2013 SADC countries considered the adoption of standards that could be agreed and were free to make a determination of a technology that they believed would best suit their interests, as long as it complied with the provisions of the ITU broadcasting plan.
Botswana chose the Japanese version, the Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial (ISDB-T) standard, for implementing digital TV, amongst others. The process would entail purchase of digital transmitters and Satellite Appling System, setting up of Data Broadcasting Unit and upgrading of Botswana Television (BTV) studio facilities amongst other cost intensive changes.

The Minister for Presidential Affairs, Governance and Public Administration, Eric Molale revealed to parliament last week that government has already spent over P180 million compared to the P130 million that was initially planned for the excise.
This expenditure, according to the minister, was worth the magnitude of the project. “We are not just migrating from analogue to digital; this is also about meeting the international requirements of switching over from analogue to digital. We are working on that because it is an international requirement through the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).”

Molale says Botswana as member of the United Nations (UN) System had to comply and willingly commit to those intentions.”   The Minister was responding to a question from Member of Parliament for Gaborone North, Haskings Nkaigwa who wanted to know if the value that has been created through the digital migration was worth the investment. The Gaborone North legislator wanted to appreciate the level of investment and also the return in investment and whether indeed the objectives of this project have been met.

Molale shared with parliament that 70 million pula has been spent of procuring 45 digital transmitters and Satellite Appling System further revealing that Botswana Television (BTV) studio facilities upgrade  consumed over 25 million pula. Over 33 million pula has already been spent on acquisition of content and the Minster observed that the expenditure on content will continue to go up. “Mind you, since this year, we are fighting to have local content as opposed to buying content from outside. We have talked to other colleagues here to say that we must further organize local producers to give us content. That will continue to cost us.”

The digital migration quest also saw the introduction of a call centre to engage the public and improve viewer’s relations with the state media and the clients being the public. A total of 17 million pula has already been pumped towards the undertaking which entails public campaigns and outreaches.  Over 9000 set-top boxes have been acquired, the devices which are mostly given as handouts to raise awareness  and market the digital transmission have cost taxpayers over 15 million pula together with setting up of a Data Broadcasting Unit.

“We had wished that set-top boxes could be produced locally. We identified a number of young persons who have the suave to do things that relate to technology, Information Technology (IT) and the like. All the time when they were ready to start production, they then gave excuses. We are still encouraging more to come forward so that these set-top boxes are produced here, so that they can even be exported to other countries in Africa,” explained Molale who stipulated that the acquisition funds could be retained locally if the set-top boxes were manufactured locally.

However he explained that his ministry has engaged Botswana Institute for Technology, Research and Innovation (BITRI) who have identified a process by which they believe that the production of these set-top boxes could be cheaper and therefore enable local young people to start producing them. “It is soothing that it is still on the cards, we have not been able to finalize it. I am optimistic, it would come on stream,” said Molale. Other millions went to the upgrading of Transmitter Calling Systems which consumed over P18 million and additional P2 million being channeled to Procurement of vehicles that carry equipment such as cameras.

Molale says the investment towards the project saw Botswana Television signal reaching 95 percent of the country’s population. “Batswana therefore can enjoy quality television picture and sound. Other benefits include; the freeing of the analogue spectrum, the frequencies that have been used so that we could now sell them to the mobile and internet industry, as well as multiple channel broadcasting,” he said. The digital migration undertaking also saw Botswana Television start to broadcast online hence increasing its viewer’s reachability.

However the multimillion pula undertaking as beneficial as it may be raises eyebrows as to whether the right expenditure procedures and procurement systems were followed during the acquisitions and upgrades of facilities. There have been reports about unprocedural procurement exercises when procuring digital migration infrastructure and equipment.

The Member of Parliament for Jwaneng Mabutsane, Shawn Nthaile quizzed Minister Molale on the procurement of Set-top Boxes: “I just want to appreciate the digital migration system that you are in the process of procuring, whether you are now in alignment with the regional infrastructure and also if the technology is still valid and not outdated? On the set-top boxes, you also indicated that you are in the process of procuring them or making them available locally, do you intend to have an open tender where the provision of these set-top boxes will be advertised?” asked Nthaile who said there were allegations that the first batch of set top boxes imported from abroad were not procured through an open tender.  
However Molale says the correct procurement procedures were followed as per public procurement guidelines.

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Civil Service volatility: Democracy vs Bureaucracy

19th April 2021
President Masisi

Here is how one Permanent Secretary encapsulates the clear tension between democracy and bureaucracy in Botswana: “President Mokgweetsi Masisi’s Government is behaving like a state surrounded with armed forces in order to capture it or force its surrender. The situation has turned so volatile, for tomorrow is not guaranteed for us top civil servants.

These are the painful results of a personalized civil service in our view as permanent secretaries”. Although his deduction of the situation may be summed as sour grapes because he is one of the ‘victims’ of the reshuffle, he is convinced this is a perfect description of the rationale behind frequent changes and transfers characterising the current civil service.

The result of it all, he said, is that “there is too much instability at managerial and strategic levels of the civil service leading to a noticeable directionless civil service.” He continued: “Changes and transfers are inevitable in the civil service, but to a permissible scale and frequency. Think of soccer team coach who changes and transfers his entire squad every month; you know the consequences?”

The Tsunami has hit hard at critical departments and Ministries leaving a strong wave of uncertainty, many demoralised and some jobless. In traditional approaches to public administration, democracy gives the goals; and bureaucracy delivers the technical efficiency required for implementation. But the recent moves in the civil service are indicative of conflicting imperatives – the notion of separation between politicians and administrators is becoming blurred by the day.

“Look at what happened to Prisons and BDF where second in command were overlooked for outsiders, and these are the people who had sacrificially served for donkey’s years hoping for a seat at the ladder’s end. The frequency of the changes, at times affecting the same Ministry or individual also demonstrates some level of ineptitude, clumsiness and lack of foresight from those in charge,” remarked the PS who added that their view is that the transfers are not related to anything but “settling scores, creating corruption opportunities and pushing out perceived dissident and former president, Ian Khama’s alleged loyalists and most of these transfers are said to be products of intelligence detection.”

Partly blaming Khama for the mess and his unwillingness to let go, the PS dismissed Masisi for falling to the trap and failing to outgrow the destructive tiff. “Khama is here to stay and the sooner Masisi comes to terms with the fact that he (Masisi) is the state President, the better. For a President to still be making these changes and transfers signals signs of a confused man who has not yet started rolling his roadmap, if at all it was ever there. I am saying this because any roadmap comes with key players and policies,” he concluded.

The Ministry of Health and Wellness seems to be the most hard-hit by the transfers, having experienced three Permanent Secretaries changes within a year and a half. Insiders say the changes have everything to do with the Ministry being the centre of COVID-19 tenders and economic opportunities. “The buck stops with the PS and no right-thinking PS can just allow glaring corruption under his watch as an accounting officer. Technocrats are generally law abiding, the pressure comes with politically appointed leaders racing against political terms to loot,” revealed a director in the Ministry preferring anonymity.

The latest transfer of Kabelo Ebineng she says was also motivated by his firm attitude against the President’s blue-eyed Task Team boys. “The Task Team wants to own the COVID-19 pandemic and government interventions and always cry foul when the Ministry reasserts itself as mandated by law,” said the director who added that Masisi who was always caught between the crossfire decided on sacrificing Ebineng to the joy of his team as they (Task Team) were in the habit of threatening to resign citing Ebineng as the problem.

Ebineng joins the Office of the President as a deputy Coordinator (government implementation and coordination office).The incoming PS is the soft-spoken Grace Muzila, known and described by her close associates as a conformist albeit knowledgeable.

One of the losers in the grand scheme is Thato Raphaka who many had seen as the next PSP because of his experience and calm demeanour following a declaration of interest in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Secretary post by the current PSP, Elias Magosi.

But hardly ten months into his post, Raphaka has been transferred out to the National Strategy Office in what many see as a demotion of some sort. Other notable changes coming into OP are Pearl Ramokoka formerly with the Employment, Labour and Productivity Ministry coming in as a Permanent Secretary and Kgomotso Abi as director of Public Service Reforms.

One of the ousted senior officers in the Office of the President warned that there are no signs that the changes and transfers will stop anytime soon: “If you are observant you would have long noticed that the changes don’t only affect senior officers but government decisions as well. A decision is made today and the government backtracks on it within a week. Not only that, the President says this today, and his deputy denies it the following day in Parliament,” he warned.

Some observers have blamed the turmoil in the civil service partly to lack of accountable presidential advisers or kitchen cabinet properly schooled on matters of statecraft. They point out that politicians or those peripheral to them should refrain from hampering the technical and organizational activities of public managers – or else the party (reshuffling) won’t stop.

In the view expressed by some Permanent Secretaries, Elias Magosi, has not really been himself since joining the civil service; and has cut a picture of indifference in most critical engagements; the most notable been a permanent secretaries platform which he chairs. As things stand there is need to reconcile the imperatives of democracy and democracy in Botswana. Peace will rein only when public value should stand astride the fault that runs between politicians and public managers.

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Morupisi fights for freedom in court

19th April 2021
morupisi

Former Permanent Secretary to the President, Carter Morupisi, is fighting for survival in a matter in which the State has charged him and his wife, Pinnie Morupisi, with corruption and money laundering.

Morupisi has joined a list of prominent figures that served in the previous administration and who have been accused of corruption during their tenure in office. While others have been emerging victorious, Morupisi is yet to find that luck. The High Court recently dismissed his no case to answer application.

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Pressure mounts on Biden to suspend Covid-19 vaccine patents

19th April 2021
Joe Biden

United States President, Joe Biden, is faced with a decision to make relating to the Covid-19 vaccine intellectual property after 175 former world leaders and Nobel laurates joined the campaign urging the US to take “urgent action” to suspend intellectual property rights for Covid-19 vaccines to help boost global inoculation rates.

According to the world leaders, doing so would allow developing countries to make their own copies of the vaccines that have been developed by pharmaceutical companies without fear of being sued for intellectual property infringements.

“A WTO waiver is a vital and necessary step to bringing an end to this pandemic. It must be combined with ensuring vaccine know-how and technology is shared openly,” the signatories, comprising more than 100 Nobel prize-winners and over 70 former world leaders, wrote in a letter to US President Joe Biden, according to Financial Times.

A measure to allow countries to temporarily override patent rights for Covid related medical products was proposed at the World Trade Organization by India and South Africa in October, and has since been backed by nearly 60 countries.

Former leaders who signed the letter included Gordon Brown, former UK Prime Minister; François Hollande, former French President; Mikhail Gorbachev, former President of the USSR; and Yves Leterme, former Belgian Prime Minister.

In their official communication, South Africa and India said: “As new diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines for Covid-19 are developed, there are significant concerns [about] how these will be made available promptly, in sufficient quantities and at affordable prices to meet global demand.”

While developed countries have been able to secure enough vaccine to inoculate their citizens, developing countries such as Botswana are struggling to source enough to swiftly vaccine their citizens, something which world leaders believe it would work against global recovery therefore proving counter-productive.

Since the availability of vaccines, Botswana has been able to secure only 60 000 doses of vaccines, 30 000 as donation as from the Indian government, while the other 30 000 was sourced through COVAX facility.  Canada, has pre-ordered vaccines in surplus and it will be able to vaccinate each of its citizens six times over. In the UK and US, it is four vaccines per person; and two each in the EU and Australia.

For vaccines produced in Europe, developing countries are forced to pay double what European countries are paying, making it more expensive for already financially struggling economies.  European countries however justify the price of vaccines and that they deserve to buy them cheap since they contributed in their development.

It is evident that vaccines cannot be made available immediately to all countries worldwide with wealthy economies being the only success story in that regard, something that has been referred to as a “catastrophic moral failure”, head of the World Health Organisation (WHO), Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.

The challenge facing developing countries is not only the price, but also the capacity of vaccine manufactures to be able to do so to meet global demand within a short time. The proposal for a patent waiver by India and South Africa has been rejected by developed countries, known for hosting the world leading pharmaceutical companies such US, European Union, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland.

According to the Financial Times, US business groups including pharmaceutical industry representatives, have urged Biden to resist supporting a waiver to IP rules at the WTO, arguing that the proposal led by India and South Africa was too “vague” and “broad”.

The individuals who signed the letter, including Nobel laureates in economics as well as from across the arts and sciences, warned that inequitable vaccine access would impact the global economy and prevent it from recovering.

“The world saw unprecedented development of safe and effective vaccines, in major part thanks to US public investment,” the group wrote. “We all welcome that vaccination rollout in the US and many wealthier countries is bringing hope to their citizens.”

“Yet for the majority of the world that same hope is yet to be seen. New waves of suffering are now rising across the globe. Our global economy cannot rebuild if it remains vulnerable to this virus.”
The group warned that fully enforcing IP was “self-defeating for the US” as it hindered global vaccination efforts. “Given artificial global supply shortages, the US economy already risks losing $1.3tn in gross domestic product this year.”

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