A semi-autonomous health regulatory body which was established by parliament, Botswana Health Professions Council (BHPC) is currently under heavy scrutiny for applying double standards in registering doctors.
It is understood that, in registering doctors, the organisation favours Chinese expatriates as opposed to local specialists although both having trained in China. This, notwithstanding, the government on one hand continues to send Batswana to China for training as doctors.
The reasons advanced by the BHPC for rejecting Batswana doctors trained in China is said to be that government sends the doctors to “fly by night” institutions in China who are not competent enough to practice as specialists upon their return.
However, the BHPC board is said to be infested with doctors in private practice who protect their monopoly interests. It is understood that they suppress the influx of equally competitive Batswana doctors as they fear competition from their honey pot in the likes of Bokamoso and Gaborone Private Hospitals.
BHPC is composed of members appointed by the Minister of Health and Wellness, Dorcus Makgatho. The council’s composition includes the Director of Health Services; the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Botswana; three medical practitioners, one of whom is a specialist; two dentists; two pharmacists; six Allied Health Professionals; one Associated Health Professional; one person form the Public not associated with Health Professionals; and a representative from the Attorney-General Chambers (legal Advisor). The China/Botswana medical training partnership has been in existence for the past 40 years.
What PS Al-Halabi “knows” about BPHC
Meanwhile when appearing before the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) recently, the Accounting Officer at the Ministry of Health and Wellness, Permanent Secretary Shenaaz El-Halabi tried to distance herself from BHPC. She stressed that the Council is semi-autonomous and independent from government but was reminded that it’s directly under her ministry.
Starting to pit the PS against the wall was Selibe Phikwe West maverick legislator who highlighted to Halabi that there is a cartel of self-appointed BHPC council members who are mainly Doctors in the private space, and that this council has decided to not register Batswana specialist Doctors trained in China (and some countries) where the government sends students for training as doctors.
The Accounting officer then responded to Keorapetse by confirming that she “is aware” that the BHPC is mainly made up of private doctors or practitioners in the sector and that there is none from government except the Director of Health Services and the Attorney General representative.
According to Keorapetse, the reasons advanced by the council are that Batswana doctors do not write licensing exams to practice in China or other countries. “It is common knowledge that all Doctors /specialists trained outside our country do not necessarily have to write licensing exams of their country of training as a licensing exam is only required where the candidate intents to practice..in which case only Botswana’s licensing exam is necessary for Batswana…” he informed Al-Halabi who was on the edge of her chair at the time.
Keorapetse emphasised that it is worth noting that if private practice doctors were to allow an influx of Batswana specialists from any country in large numbers they would risk competition in the private space adding that these people were making millions from Gaborone Private Hospital and Bokamoso hospital and that “they are avoiding competition by denying other Batswana specialists registration.” He asked the accounting officer whether she was aware that Batswana students are sent to China to specialize while on the other hand the BHPC refuses to register them upon their return to practice.
Al-Halabi stated: “yes I am aware of that.” When he asked further why then still they continue to send the student doctors there despite the development, Al-Halabi said “yes we do continue sending them to China to study but with due diligence being followed.” She added that, as a ministry when students doctors are sent to China they make sure that the schools which they attend are accredited.
The local doctors, Keorapetse narrated, have had one of them taking the BPHC to court and the Council lost, but they will not use the precedent to register everyone because they want to keep people out of registration for a while enjoying monopoly in the private space.
“They are fully aware that court cases take a while, they are also aware that in any case every time BHPC loses cases they do not have to personally pay anything, in the end it's the ministry of Health that pays,” he added.
The Selibe Phikwe West law maker also emphasized that this is corruption of the highest order by the elite who are holding the country’s health care at ransom through denying Batswana trained specialists only to protect their private interests. He added that it is sad that their Chinese counterparts are recruited here and registered by the same BHPC but Batswana who trained in the same system are denied that registration out of selfish interests.
The sentiment was also shared by Al-Halabi: “the local doctors’ concern is that Chinese doctors who studied at China come here in our country and they get easily registered and are accredited to practice as specialists while Batswana who likewise studied at China are not when they return back home.” When justifying the move she said, in China they have certain courses for developing countries and so the education system is very different.
On another related matter, Keorapetse said there are some senior doctors who have practiced for a long time as specialists whilst they only hold Member of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK (MRCP or FRCP(Canada)/ Fellowship of the Colleges of Physicians of SA(FCP-SA).
“How many of these doctors have practiced and for how long? Were they hired and paid as specialists? Were they registered by the Health Professional Council? Why? Are some of them now in schools trying to specialize?” he wondered. Al-Halabi pleaded with the committee that she will look into the matter and make sure that the calamity is addressed.
In addition the Ministry of Health and Wellness PS Al-Halabi also told the PAC that she had a meeting with China ambassador and Health professionals to discuss all issues with regard to the professionals’ trainings and will map a way forward. Health Council board chair contradicts PS Al-Halabi
However when speaking to Weekend Post on the matter this week, BHPC Board Chairman Boago Modiitsane dismissed any misdeeds on the part of the Health Council board. In fact, he contradicted her superior, PS Al-Halabi saying that the organ is placed under the Ministry of Health and Wellness. He also said the partnership between government of Botswana through Ministry Of Health and Wellness and The People’s Republic of China also has no bearing on the registration of any applicant.
He broke ranks with the PS while defending BHPC saying they “are not aware” of where the Ministry Of Health and Wellness sends its employees for training when quizzed if this isn’t likely to strain relations between the doctors originating from the two countries. He was quick to clarify that BHPC does indeed recognize any trained specialists who meet registration requirements and that the country of training is never a requirement (in this case China).
“BHPC does register Batswana trained specialists. We have about 105 Batswana specialists in the register as of February 2017 trained from various parts of the world and we continue to register Batswana specialists. Therefore, the statement that BHPC does not register Batswana specialists is misleading,” Modiitsane said.
He went on to stress that specialists are clinicians who have refined skills in patient care beyond that of a generalist, and therefore on assessing an application for specialist registration BHPC looks for, among other things, whether a training programme has delivered the appropriate clinical competencies to deliver specialized patient care to Batswana in a safe manner.
He also stated that: “training of health professionals follows two different pathways that lead to varied outcomes. Health professionals who intend to sharpen their skills in patient care will follow the clinical pathway that will enhance their clinical competency while those that are interested in research will follow an academic pathway.” “Consistent with this mandate, BHPC is more concerned with clinical rather than academic programmes. This applies to every applicant regardless of the country of training.”
The BHPC Board Chairman also explained that assessment of applications for registration is an objective exercise that is based on the minimum requirement set by BHPC. One must meet these minimum standards for them to be registered, he said. According to Modiitsane the BHPC boards are composed of members who are drawn from both the public and private sector, therefore the statement that Batswana Health Professionals are refused registration because of fear of competition is unfounded. Furthermore, he said both Batswana and Foreigners are eligible for private Practice if they meet the required standards. “The alleged fear for competition (real or imagined), therefore, should apply in case of where foreigners are registered.”
The newly elected Botswana Movement for Democracy (BMD) Executive Committee led by Pastor Reverend Thuso Tiego has declared their disapproval of homosexuality saying it is anti-Christianity and Botswana culture.
Speaking at a Media Briefing this past week, BMD President Tiego said Botswana has been a country that respects culture hence endorsing homosexuality will be catastrophic.
“Our young generation grew up being taught about types of families, if homosexuality is passed, at what age will our children be introduced to homosexuality?” he rhetorically asked.
He continued: “If we are going to allow homosexuality then the next day, another person will come and say he wants to practice bestiality. What are we going to do because we have already allowed for this one (homosexuality) and at the end it will be a total mess.” Bestiality is sexual relations between a human being and an animal
This according to Tiego will give those people an opportunity thus disrupting known Botswana beliefs. He however dismissed any notion that the decision to condemn homosexuality should not be linked to the top two of the committee who are men of cloth. “This is a decision by the whole committee which respects the culture of Botswana and it should not be perceived that because we are clergymen we are influencing them, but even if we do, politics and religion are inter-related.”
Of late the church and the human rights organization have been up in arms because of the high court decision to allow for same sex marriages. Ministries ganged up, petitioned parliament and threatened to vote out any legislator who will support the idea. The ruling party, BDP which was to table the amendment in the constitution, ended up deferring it.
BMD President further revealed that he is aware of what really led to the split of the party and he is on course to transform as they approach 2024 elections.
“There are so many factors that led to split of party amongst others being leadership disputes, personal egos and ambitions, toxic factionalism and ideological difference just to mention a few, but we are transforming the party and I am confident that we will do well in the coming elections.
In addition, Tiego is hopeful that they will take the government as they feel it is time to rebrand Botswana politics and bring in fresh blood of leaders.
He further hinted that they are coming with positive transformation as they eye to better the lives of Batswana.
“When we assume government, we promise to be transparent, free and fair electoral processes and encourage pluralism as way of getting back to our roots of being a democratic country as it seems like the current government has forgotten about that important aspect,” Tiego explained.
Reeling under the increasing barrage of stinging international sanctions, the isolated North Korean regime is reportedly up to its old trickery, this time in a more complicated web of murky operations that have got the authorities of five southern African countries at sixes and sevens as they desperately try to tighten their dragnet around Pyongyang’s spectral network of illicit ivory and rhino horn trade.
It is an intricate network of poaching for elephant tusks and rhino horns that spans Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe, with the main sources of the contraband being Botswana and South Africa.
The syndicate running the illegal trafficking of the poached contraband is suspected to be controlled by two shadowy North Korean government operatives with close links to one Han Tae-song, a disgraced North Korean career diplomat who, while serving as the second secretary at his country’s embassy in Harare, Zimbabwe, was expelled in 1992 after he was fingered as the mastermind behind a similar illegal ring that was busted by the country’s authorities.
This disturbing tale of malfeasance by North Korean state actors is as real as it gets.
Recent reports indicate that authorities in the source countries are jointly battling to plug holes created by the shadowy syndicate which allegedly has on its payroll, park rangers, border officials and cross-border truck drivers.
Even more disturbing are allegations that some wildlife officials are conniving in misrepresenting numbers of retrieved rhino horns and ivory from poachers and getting kickbacks for their involvement in the pilfering of ivory and rhino horns from government stockpiles especially in South Africa.
In a shocking and well-orchestrated movie-style heist in South Africa, thieves in June this year made off with 51 rhino horns after breaking into a very secure government stockpile facility of the North West Parks Board (NWPB).
While some suspects from South Africa and Malawi were nabbed in a government sting operation, none of the rhino horns – 14 of which were very large specimens that can fetch serious money on the black market – were recovered.
A report of the heist said the police were lethargic by eight hours in responding to an emergency alert of the robbery which was described by North West police spokesperson Brigadier Sabata Mokgwabone as “… a case of business robbery…”
Thabang Moko, a security analyst in Pretoria says the military precision in the burglary, delays in police response, and failure to recover the stolen rhino horns is dubious. “This development lends credence to suspicions that some government officials could be part of a shadowy syndicate run by foreign buyers of rhino horns and ivory,” Moko says.
It is understood that in light of the rhino horns heist in North West, South Africa’s Minister of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries, Barbara Creecy on 1 August, shared her concerns to her counterparts in Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique calling for greater regional cooperation to combat the illegal wildlife trafficking which she believes is being masterminded by the Far East’s buyers of the ill-gotten horns and ivory.
It is believed that foreign kingpins involved in perpetuating the illegal trade are mainly North Koreans vying against Vietnamese and Cambodian buyers in the quest for dominance of the illicit trade in rhino horns and ivory sourced from southern Africa.
Creecy’s concerns, which she also shared to South Africa’s state-run broadcaster SABC, echoed Moko’s worries that the North West heist may have been an inside job.
According to Creecy, there was a need for the International Criminal Police Organisation (Interpol)’s greater involvement in joint investigations by affected countries as there were indications of ‘local knowledge’ of the North West job and that syndicates, “Higher up the value chain actually recruit park rangers to the illegal ivory trade network.”
Botswana’s Environment and Tourism Minister Philda Kereng is on national record admitting that poaching was a source of headaches to her government, especially considering that the daring poachers were making successful incursions into secure areas protected by the Botswana Defence Force (BDF).
This came after poachers gunned down two white rhinos at the BDF-protected Khama Rhino Sanctuary in August 2022 despite Kereng putting the time frame of the killings between October and November 2022.
Kereng hinted at the existence of Asian controlled syndicates and acknowledged that the surge in poaching in Botswana is driven by the “increased demand for rhino horn on the international market” where in Asia rhino horns are believed to be potent in traditional medicines and for their imagined therapeutic properties.
Botswana has in the past recorded an incident of a group of an all-Asian reconnaissance advance team teams being nabbed by the country’s intelligence service in the Khama Rhino Sanctuary.
Masquerading as tourists, the group, with suspected links to North Korea and China, was discovered to be collecting crucial data for poachers.
Also according to reliable information at hand, an undisclosed number of wildlife parks rangers were arrested between September 2022 and January this year, after information surfaced that they connived in the smuggling of rhino horns and ivory from Botswana.
One of the rangers reportedly admitted getting paid to falsify information on recovered horns and ivory which were smuggled out of the country through its vast and porous eastern border with South Africa, and making their way to their final destination in Mozambique via back roads and farmlands in South Africa and Zimbabwe.
“We are aware that in the past year, some rhino horns and ivory illegally obtained from Botswana through poaching activities and shady deals by some elements within our wildlife and national parks department, have found their way out of the country and end up in Mozambique’s coastal ports for shipment to the Far East,” a Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) source says.
Independent investigations reveal that two North Korean buyers, one of them only identified as Yi Kang-dae [confirmed to be an intelligence official in the country’s state security apparatus], acting on behalf of the disgraced Han Tae-song, financed the entire operation on two occasions between 2022 and 2023, to move at least 18 rhino horns and 19 elephant tusks from Botswana, including pay-offs – mostly to border patrol and customs officials for safe passage – along the knotty conduit across South Africa’s north western lands, then across south-eastern Zimbabwe into Mozambique.
According to a trusted cross-border transport operator in Zimbabwe, the rhino horns and elephant tusks were illegally handed over to smugglers in Mozambique at an obscure illegal crossing point 15km north of Zimbabwe’s Forbes Border Post in November 2022 and February this year.
The end buyers in Mozambique? “It is quite an embarrassment for us, but we have solid evidence that two North Korean buyers, one of them who is linked to a former notorious diplomat from that country who has been in the past involved in such illegal activities in Zimbabwe, oversaw the loading of rhino horns and ivory onto a China-bound ship from one of our ports,” a top government source in Maputo said before declining to divulge more information citing ongoing investigations.
Yi Kang-dae and his accomplice’s whereabouts are presently unclear to Mozambican authorities whose dragnet reportedly recently netted some key actors of the network. Han Tae-song currently serves as North Korea’s ambassador to the United Nations in Switzerland.
North Korean diplomats have in the past used Mozambique as a final transit point for the shipment of rhino horns to the Far East.
In May 2015, Mozambican authorities nabbed two North Koreans, one of them a Pretoria-based diplomat and political counsellor identified as Pak Chol-jun after they were caught in possession of 4.5kg of rhino horn pieces and US$100,000 cash.
Pak’s accomplice, Kim Jong-su, a Taekwondo instructor also based in South Africa, was fingered as a North Korean spy and returned to North Korea under suspicious circumstances on the heels of Pak’s expulsion from South Africa in November 2016.
A security source in Zimbabwe closely following current developments says there is a big chance that Han Tae-song may have revived the old smuggling network he ran while posted in Zimbabwe in the 90s.
“The biting international sanctions against North Korea in the past decade may have prompted Han to reawaken his network which has been dormant for some time,” the source says. “There is no telling if the shady network is dead now given that Han’s two front men have not been nabbed in Mozambique. More joint vigilance is needed to destroy the operation at the source and at the end of the line.”
North Korean diplomats have, as early as October 1976, been fingered for engaging in illegal activities ranging from possession of and trade in ivory pieces, trade in diamonds and gold, the manufacture and distribution of counterfeit currencies, pharmaceuticals, and the sale on the black market, of a paraphernalia of drugs, cigarettes, alcohol and other trinkets on the back of protracted and biting international sanctions against the reclusive state for its gross human rights abuses against its own people and flagrant nuclear tests.
These illegal activities, according to a US Congressional Research Service (CRS) report, have raked in at least US$500m annually for the Pyongyang regime. Other global studies estimate that North Korea’s illegal earnings from the black market are around $1bn annually, and are being channelled towards the country’s nuclear weapons programme, while ordinary North Koreans continue to die of mass starvation.
In February 2014, Botswana, citing systematic human rights violations, severed ties with North Korea with the former’s president Mokgweetsi Masisi (then vice president) calling North Korea an ‘evil nation’ on 23 September 2016, at a United Nations General Assembly forum in Washington, USA.
Botswana has close to 132,000 elephants, more than any of its four neighbouring countries, namely Angola, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, according to a 2022 Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA) Elephant Survey.
The rhino population in Botswana has significantly dwindled, with poaching a leading cause of the decimation of the country’s rhinos. Despite dehorning and relocating its diminishing rhino population from the extensive Okavango Delta to undisclosed sanctuaries, Botswana has since 2018, lost 138 rhinos to poachers.
The sharp spike in rhino poaching in Botswana came after the country’s government made a controversial decision to disarm park rangers in early 2018.
In a statement delivered in November 2022 to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) CoP-19 in Panama, the Botswana government instead blamed the surge in poaching to a shift of foreign-sponsored organised poaching organisations from South Africa to Botswana.
“This increase in rhino poaching in Botswana coincided with a decline of rhino poaching in South Africa from 2018 to 2020, suggesting a displacement of the poaching syndicates from South Africa to Botswana,” the statement reads. “The recent decline in rhino poaching in Botswana (2021 and 2022, relative to 2020) coincides with the increase in rhino poaching in Namibia and South Africa, further suggesting displacement of the poaching syndicates across the sub-region.”
According to the Botswana government, as of 13 November 2022 the country has secreted its shrinking rhinos (only 285 white rhinos and 23 black rhinos) in undisclosed locations within the country’s borders.
South Africa has close to 15,000 rhinos. Between January and June 2022 alone, poachers killed 260 rhinos in South Africa for their horns. The country is home to the majority of Africa’s white rhinos, a species whose existence remains under threat of extinction due to poaching.
The major threat posed by foreign state actors including those from North Korea, to southern Africa’s rhino and elephant population remains grim as the bulk of the rhino horns and elephant tusks reportedly continue finding their way to the Far East, where China is being used as the major distribution centre.