Botswana Federation of Public Sector Unions (BOFEPUSU) has kick-started the process of lobbying civic society and Members of Parliament (MPs) towards a process that will lead to constitutional reform in the country.
The federation, which is the biggest and the most influential labour movement in Botswana this week held a forum where various organs of civic society deliberated on the matter of constitutional reforms. BOFEPUSU comprises of four public sector unions; Botswana Sector of Educators Trade Union (BOSETU), Botswana Land Boards, Local Authorities and Health Workers Union (BLLAHWU), Botswana Teachers Union (BTU) and National Amalgamated, Local and Central Government and Parastatal Workers Union (NALCGPWU) and other auxiliary trade unions outside the public sector scope.
Speaking at the conference organised by the federation this week, BOFEPUSU Deputy Secretary General Ketlhalefile Motshegwa said the aim of the discussion was one way initiating debate that would eventually lead to constitutional reforms. He noted the importance of legislators in taking part in the conversation including in future because they are the core of constitutional reforms as lawmakers. “We had invited all MPs and political parties, but the turnout is not what we expected because our MPs are the main target of this gathering as lawmakers,” he said, commenting on lack of participation by MPs in the conference.
Several MPs and politicians were however in attendance, among them Botswana Congress Party (BCP) leader Dumelang Saleshando, Tlokweng MP Masego Segokgo, Mogoditshane and Ghanzi North MPs Sedirwa Kgoroba and Noah Salakae respectively. The constitutional reforms talks have never really had buy-in from influential people. As per the current constitution, major constitutional reforms require a national referendum, a process that can only be set in motion by parliament majority.
Different speakers from the civil society alluded to reforms in the judiciary to make it more democratic and independent from the executive. “It would be in the best interest of democracy that judges are appointed by parliament, not the president,” said Attorney Carlos Salbany.
“Although the judiciary’s role is not to make laws but to interpret laws, one way or another through court rulings [judicial precedents], the courts make laws.”
1997 CONSTITUTIONAL REFORMS
In the mid-1990s, ruling Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) was forced to undergo major constitutional reforms, for the first time since independence. The reforms were brought in by a number of factors at that time. BDP was going through turbulence, owing to factional infightings in the party. The polarity in the party saw the party Young Turks and other progressive individuals in the party pushing for reforms. Individuals such as Kabo Morwaeng, a rising star in the party; Jacob Nkate the party’s youth league leader; Sidney Pilane a resilient lawyer within the party, were instrumental in bringing about reforms in the party.
After a period of self examination, the BDP top brass relented and acceded to the reforms. In 1997 BDP enacted the new political reforms that were highly welcome across the political divide. The newly introduced constitutional provisions included; introduction of the 10 year presidential tenure limit; reduction of voting age from 21 to 18; introduction of Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) as well as the controversial automatic succession section.
BDP CONGRESS’ 2015 CONSTITUTIONAL REFORMS
BDP is currently sitting on the 2015 congress resolutions in which the party delegates adopted the possibility of exploring electoral and political reforms. Political Education and Election Committee (PEEC) Sub-committee chaired by former Barataphathi stalwart Gaotlhaetse Matlhabaphiri was mandated with the task. At the heart of the reforms are several proposals such as adoption of hybrid electoral system encompassing First Past The Post (FPTP) and Proportional Representation (PR).
For the first time in history, the BDP opened up to the possibility of introducing political party funding, a subject that has been a ‘taboo’ within the party. Political funding was part of the debate and discussions held by the regions with the view of adopting the idea or maintaining the state of affairs. Political party funding has attracted a number of credible proponents in the last few years that are of the view that, a matured democracy like that of Botswana should have by now embraced such an initiative. Among them is the late former President Sir Quett Ketumile Masire who said that failure to do so may result in political parties sourcing funds from undesirable organisations in foreign countries. The reform talks have their own opponents within the BDP as influential members of the central committee who believe the introduction of Proportional Representation or hybrid system as proposed by Ntuane will essentially hand over power to opposition in 2019.
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION AND WOMEN REPRESENTATION
Botswana has continued to fare badly in the ‘The Global Gender Gap Index’ report in the category of political empowerment, a reminiscent of the country sidelining of women in policy and law making decisions. In light of this, BCP Women’s Wing President Daisy Bathusi has proposed the introduction of the proportional representation as the only way that will ensure that more women are brought in parliament.
She said the current environment, where women are expected to compete with men through the First-Past-the-Post system has proven that it will never be friendly to women representation in the country’s law and policy making institutions such as council and parliament.
The Global Gender Gap Index was first introduced by the World Economic Forum in 2006 as a framework for capturing the magnitude of gender-based disparities and tracking their progress over time.
The Index benchmarks national gender gaps on economic, education, health and political criteria, and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparisons across regions and income group. The category of political empowerment measures the gap between men and women at the highest level of political decision-making through the ratio of women to men in minister-level positions and the ratio of women to men in parliamentary positions. In addition, it includes the ratio of women to men in terms of years in executive office (prime minister or president) for the last 50 years.
At present Botswana has only six female MPs out of 63 seats, the recent entrant to the list being Bogolo Kenewendo who was sworn in last year following constitutional amendments in the last session of parliament to increase the number of specially elected MPs from four to six.
The low number of female MPs has been attributed to the country’s electoral system which emphasises that winners in the legislature are only elected through first-past-the-post, an enduring system for women.
In Africa, Rwanda outclassed the whole world in political empowerment, according to the 2016 report. Rwanda remains the country with the highest share of female parliamentarians in the world, with 64 percent of representatives in its legislature being female. Neighbouring South Africa which was ranked 13th overall is ranked ahead of Botswana in the category of political participation, with a ranking of 7th position. Other African countries which were ranked ahead of Botswana overall include Namibia, Cape Verde, Mozambique and Burundi.
In the past there were efforts to increase representation of women in parliament through the special election nomination dispensation. In the 9th parliament MP for Mahalapye East Botlogile Tshireletso tried to trigger constitutional amendment to increase the number of specially elected MPs from four to eight of which four seats will be reserved for women. The motion was opposed famously by then Specially Elected MP Ntuane, who argued that increasing the number of special parliamentary seats may not be the best way to increase women's representation in Parliament.
Ntuane suggested that it would be better to change Botswana's electoral system to proportional representation than to add new Specially Elected seats in Parliament. He argued that the voters were not in favour of increasing the number of special MPs because they dilute the power of the elected MPs.
As a response to avert vulture poisoning currently going on in Botswana and KAZA region, Birdlife Botswana has collaborated with three other partners (BirdWatch Zambia, BirdLife International & Birdlife Zimbabwe) to tackle wildlife poisoning which by extension negatively affect vulture populations.
The Director of Birdlife Botswana, Motshereganyi Virat Kootshositse has revealed in an interview that the project which is funded by European Union’s main goal is to reduce poisoning related vultures’ death and consequently other wildlife species death within the KAZA region.
He highlighted that Chobe district in Botswana has been selected as a pilot site as it has experienced rampant incidents of vulture poisoning for the past few months. In August this year at least 50 endangered white backed vultures were reported dead at Chobe National Park, Botswana after feeding on a buffalo carcass laced with poison. In November this year again 43 white backed vultures were found dead and two alive after feeding on a zebra suspected to have poisoned. Other selected pilots’ sites are Kafue in Zambia and Hwange in Zimbabwe.
Kootshositse further explained they have established a national and regional Wildlife Poisoning Committee. He added that as for the national committee they have engaged various departments such as Crop Productions, Agro Chemicals, Department of Veterinary Services, Department of Wildlife and National Parks and other NGOs such as Raptors Botswana to come together and find a long-lasting solution to address wildlife poisoning in Botswana. ‘Let’s have a strategy or a plan together to tackle wildlife poisoning,’ he stated
He also decried that there is gap in the availability of data about vulture poisoning or wildlife in general. ‘If we have a central point for data, it will help in terms of reporting and advocacy’, he stated
He added that the regional committee comprises of law enforcement officers such as BDF and Botswana police, village leadership such as Village Development Committee and Kgosi. ‘We need to join hand together and protect the wildlife we have as this will increase our profile for conservation and this alone enhances our visitation and boost our local economy,’ he noted
Kootshositse noted that Birdlife together with DWNP also addressed series of meeting in some villages in the Chobe region recently. The purpose of kgotla meetings was to raise awareness on the conservation and protection of vultures in Chobe West communities.
‘After realizing that vulture poisoning in the Chobe areas become frequent, we realise that we need to do something about it. ‘We did a public awareness by addressing several kgotla meetings in some villages in the Chobe west,’ he stated
He noted that next year they are going to have another round of consultations around the Chobe areas and the approach is to engage the community into planning process. ‘Residents should be part of the plan of actions and we are working with farmers committee in the areas to address vulture poisoning in the area, ‘he added
He added that they have found out that some common reasons for poisoning wildlife are farmers targeting predators such as lions in retaliation to killing of their livestock. Another common incident cross border poaching in the Chobe area as poachers will kills an elephant and poison its carcass targeting vultures because of their aerial circling alerting authorities about poaching activities.
Kootshositse noted that in the last cases it was disheartening the incidents occurred three months apart. He added that for the first time they found that some of the body parts of some vultures were missing. He added harvesting of body parts of vultures is not a common practice in Botswana, although it is used in some parts of Africa. ‘We suspect that someone took advantage of the availability of carcasses and started harvesting their body parts,’
The music industry is at a point where artists are jostling for space because there are so many aspirants trying to get their big break, thus creating stiff competition.
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It doesn’t only stop there, as the musician has already been nominated 2 times and 2 awards which are Bulawayo Arts Awards (BAA) best Male artists 2022, StarFM listerners Choice Award, Best Newcomer 2021 and ZIMA Best Contemporary Gospel 2022, MLA awards Best Male artist & Best Gospel Artist 2022.
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Minister of Health Dr Edwin Dikoloti says Africa member states call on World Health Organization (WHO) to ensure equitable resource allocation for 2024-2025. Dr Dikoloti was speaking this week at the WHO Executive Board Meeting in Geneva, Switzerland.
He said countries agreed that there is need to address the budget and funding imbalances by increasing the programme budget share of countries and regions to 75% for the next year.
“The proposed budget for 2024-2025 marks an important milestone as it is the first in Programme Budget in which country offices will be allocated more than half of the total budget for the biennium. We highly welcome this approach which will enable the organization to deliver on its mandate while fulfilling the expectations for transparency, efficiency and accountability.”
The Botswana Health Minister commended member states on the extension of the General Programme of Work (GPD 13) and the Secretariat work to monitor the progress towards the triple billion targets, and the health-related SDGs.
“We welcome the Director’s general proposed five priorities which have crystalized into the “five Ps” that are aligned with the GPW 13 extension. Impact can only be achieved through close coordination with, and support to national health authorities. As such, the strengthening of country offices is instrumental, with particular focus on strengthening national health systems and on promoting more equitable access to health services.”
According to Dr Dikoloti, the majority of countries with UHC index that is below the global median are in the WHO Africa region. “For that, we call on the WHO to enhance capacity at the regional and national levels in order to accelerate progress. Currently, the regional office needs both technical and financial support in order to effectively address and support country needs.”