Umbrella for Democratic Change (UDC) president, Duma Boko has written a petition to the Swedish Government titled Botswana Arms race in the midst of poverty, massive unemployment and social inequality. The petition protests Botswana government’s ongoing and planned military spending.
Boko states that their plea as representatives of Botswana's political parties and civil society is for the Swedish Parliament not to approve the sale of these fighter jets to the government of the Republic of Botswana as it is not in the national interest to do so.
“Our position is that military spending must be kept to the barest minimum, and Botswana's meagre resources should be used to build better infrastructure, such as water and electricity supply, in order attract foreign investment, reduce poverty, unemployment, social inequality and reword labour productivity, especially in the public sector,” he writes.
The UDC leaders observes that since 2008, with the arrival of General lan Khama as Botswana's president, the country's national security' expenditure has been on the increase. He cites the Stockholm International Peace Research (SlPRl), which records that Botswana's military expenditure jumped from US$ 292 million in 1998 to US$ 377 in 2OO8 to US$ 436 in 2015 (at constant 2014 prices and exchanges rates).
“According to the more recent National Development Plan (April 2017-March 2023), Botswana is planning to spend about fifteen (15) percent of its GDP on what is labeled 'Territorial integrity'. lt is estimated thot about half of this will go towards the acquisition of the ultra-modern Swedish mode Gripen JAS 39 fighter aircraft, manufactured by SAAB.”
Boko informs the Swedish Parliament that Botswana intends to acquire between eight and 12 of these aircraft. He explains that the Gripen JAS 39 aircraft is on ultra-modern and very advanced fighter, even by European standards that military aviation experts say the BDF neither needs nor can afford.
He shares that critics have questioned the wisdom of this intended military aircraft, especially fighter jets such as the Gripen, pointing to the BDF's immediate needs in anti-poaching, border security patrols and peace keeping operations on the continent. While nobody's is against BDF modernization, various experts argue for o multi-role lighter aircraft rather than the Gripen or even the T-50.
“But it is also important to note thot not only the BDF in general, but the soldiers in particular, have much more relevant and even desperate needs. lt is common cause that in many cases BDF men and women lock such basic supplies as new boots and socks, let alone decent accommodation, and live permanently in tents,” observes Boko.
ECONOMY LOOKS REALLY GLOOMY
In the petition, Boko observes that Botswana's economic situation now looks really gloomy. Whilst in 2009 foreign debt stood at 6.3% of the GDP, ii hos now increased to about 16% of GDP, fueled partly by lan Khama military spending spree, official figures pu1 unemployment at 19%, but the accelerating closure of mines and factories is likely to push the figure higher. Youth unemployment now exceeds 4O7", and a fifth of the country's two million people live on less than $2 a day; across the country the ranks of young and embittered are swelling.
According to the UDC leader the impending revision of the SACU revenue-sharing formula will see Botswana's shore-its second largest revenue source after diamonds – decline significantly. Boko says diamond sales – which contribute o third of the country's GDP – have lost their sparkle, declining by up to 30% in market value over two years, according to S&P report published in December 20,l5. Last year, he says, Debswana, a 50/50 venture between Botswana government and De Beers, closed its Damtshaa diamond mine, adding woes to on industry thot hos shed up to 30,000 jobs.
“The Australian copper junior miner Discovery Metals Limited filed for bankruptcy lost year, leaving 450 workers near the Okavango Delta out in the cold, while African Copper closed its operations at Mowana and Thakadu in central Botswana. On August 31 2016, the state-owned BCL – Botswana's biggest copper and nickel mine -collapsed into bankruptcy after enduring three decodes of losses, throwing about 6,000 miners out of work and dealing o heavy blow to the Francistown/Selibe-Phikwe regional economy.
ln a society where the average size of the family is four, the 6000 lob losses mean about 24,000 people have been impacted directly or indirectly by the mine closures. The commercial banking sector, considered more resilient thon others, is seen by the country's central bank as "weakening" because of the general decline of the economy. The financial services sector contributes I 1% of GDP. Ln December 2015, when commodity prices slump began to bite.”
Boko further blasts Khama for withdrawing P3.5 billion from the Pula Fund, a stabllization reserve created with diamond revenues, to finance a populist Economic Stimulus Package (ESP). He directs the Swedish Parliament to the international rating agency, S&P, which warned in January of this year that Botswana faces a "deteriorating outlook" in 2O17, suggesting a downgrade from A-/A-2 sovereign credit rating could be on the horizon.
Meanwhile, Boko adds that since 2011 lan Khama has tried by all means to emasculate, marginalize and sideline a legally established Public Sector Bargaining Council, throwing the country's industrial relations, especially in the public sector, into disarray. Using the old and discredited tactics of divide and rule.
The UDC president says Khama has abused his executive powers to award salary increment outside the bargaining council. “We believe that lan Khama is doing this in order to a the questions thot might be raised at the PSBC concerning unjustified military spending in view of the claim thot the government has no money to pay public sector employees decent wages and salaries.
The foregoing account of Botswana's economic and fiscal position puts into stork relief the flowed spending priorities by the current government, specifically its military spending spree. Botswana is not in a position to engage in this misplaced defense spending.”
Boko says it is clear that Botswana as a country cannot afford this kind of military spending because; Botswana faces serious challenges of unemployment, poverty and extremely poor social and physical infrastructure and poor services delivery. There is an urgent need to address the issue of ever rising unemployment, and in particular youth unemployment, which will go a long way towards reducing Botswana notorious high levels of poverty and social inequality, says Boko. He cites that none of these challenges can be solved by the current military shopping spree.
According to Boko, Botswana is not facing any direct external threat and the cost of purchasing and maintaining a fleet of high tech and advanced jet fighters is prohibitive as evidenced by the experience of South African Defence Force. He points out that this will be on ill-advised spending in the face of more compelling national priorities. What is more, this is not even o priority for the Botswana Defence Force, but something driven by the selfish interest of the current Botswana president, who stands to reap a handsome commission through his family company, Seleka Springs, he reasons.
The UDC leader is of the view that this purchase is also unjustified in the sense that it starts on arms race in the region, which is the delight of Khama family; will create o vicious circle of arms race, as some countries want to outperform others, and still, Khama family will be the winner.
KHAMA FAMILY AND THE WEAPONS TRADE
Boko further writes that it is also important to note that Ian Khama's military spending spree is not even indicative of his 'patriotic' or even 'altruistic' credentials. He says it is all about his unbridled selfishness and policy of self-aggrandizement. The President's family has deep roots in the weapons trade.
“President lan Khama and his brothers have, through their military supplier company, Seleka Springs, dominated BDF tenders for decodes, especially during the time when he was Commander of the BDF,” he writes. Boko shares the Minisier of Defence, Justice and Security once revealed in an answer to a parliamentary question, thot Seleka Springs, has acted as agents for several European companies for the supply of specialized military equipment, ammunition and spares.
The United States (US) will on the 3rd of November 2020 chose between incumbent Donald Trump of the Republicans and former Vice President Joe Biden of the Democrats amid the coronavirus pandemics, which has affected how voting is conducted in the world’s biggest economy.
Trump (74) seeks re-election after trouncing Hillary Clinton in 2016, while Biden (77) is going for his first shot as Democratic nominee after previous unsuccessful spells.
US Presidents mostly succeed in their re-election bid, but there have been nine individuals who failed to garner a second term mandate, the latest being George W H. Bush, a Republican who served as the 41st US President between 1989 and 1993.
Dr Mark Rozell, a Dean of the School of Policy and Government at George Mason University in Arlington, Virginia describes the complex US electoral system that will deliver the winner at the 3rd November elections.
“The founders of our Republic de-centralised authority significantly in creating our constitutional system, which means that they gave an enormous amount of independent power and authority to State and local governments,” Dr Rozell told international media on Elections 2020 Virtual Reporting Tour.
Unlike parliamentary democracies, like Botswana the United States does not have all of the national government elected in one year. They do not have what is commonly called mandate elections where the entire federal government is elected all in one election cycle giving a “mandate” to a particular political party to lead, and instead US have what are called staggered elections, elections over time.
The two house Congress, members of the House of Representatives have two-year long terms of office. Every two years the entire House of Representatives is up for re-election, but senators serve for six years and one third of the Senate is elected every two years.
For this election cycle, US citizens will be electing the President and Vice
President, the entire House of Representatives and one third of the open or contested seats in the Senate, whereas two thirds are still fulfilling the remainder of their terms beyond this year.
An important facet of US electoral system to understand given the federalism nature of the republic, the US elect presidents State by State, therefore they do not have a national popular vote for the presidency.
“We have a national popular vote total that says that Hillary Clinton got three million more votes than Donald Trump or in Year 2000 that Al Gore got a half million more votes than George W. Bush, but we have what is called a State by State winner takes all system where each State is assigned a number of electors to our Electoral College and the candidate who wins the popular vote within each State takes 100 percent of the electors to the Electoral College,” explained Dr Rozell.
“And that is why mathematically, it is possible for someone to win the popular vote but lose the presidency.”
Dr Rozell indicated that in 2016, Hillary Clinton won very large popular majorities in some big population States like California, but the system allows a candidate to only have to win a State by one vote to win a 100 percent of its electors, the margin does not matter.
“Donald Trump won many more States by smaller margins, hence he got an Electoral College majority.”
Another interesting features by the way of US constitutional system, according to Dr Rozell, but extremely rare, is what is called the faithless elector.
“That’s the elector to the Electoral College who says, ‘I’m not going to vote the popular vote in my State, I think my State made a bad decision and I’m going to break with the popular vote,’’ Dr Rozell said.
“That’s constitutionally a very complicated matter in our federalism system because although the federal constitution says electors may exercise discretion, most States have passed State laws making it illegal for any elector to the Electoral College to break faith with the popular vote of that State, it is a criminal act that can be penalized if one is to do that. And we just had an important Supreme Court case that upheld the right of the states to impose and to enforce this restriction”
There are 538 electors at the Electoral College, 270 is the magic number, the candidate who gets 270 or more becomes President of the United States.
If however there are more candidates, and this happens extremely rarely, and a third candidate got some electors to the Electoral College denying the two major party candidates, either one getting a majority, nobody gets 270 or more, then the election goes to the House of Representatives and the House of Representatives votes among the top three vote getters as to who should be the next President.
“You’d have to go back to the early 19th century to have such a scenario, and that’s not going to happen this year unless there is a statistical oddity, which would be a perfect statistical tie of 269 to 269 which could happen but you can just imagine how incredibly unlikely that is,” stated Dr Rozell.
BLUE STATES vs RED STATES
Since the 2000 United States presidential election, red states and blue states have referred to states of the United States whose voters predominantly choose either the Republican Party (red) or Democratic Party (blue) presidential candidates.
Many states have populations that are so heavily concentrated in the Democratic party or the Republican party that there is really no competition in those states.
California is a heavily Democratic State, so is New York and Maryland. It is given that Joe Biden will win those states. Meanwhile Texas, Florida and Alabama are republicans. So, the candidates will spent no time campaigning in those states because it is already a given.
However there are swing states, where there is a competition between about five and 10 states total in each election cycle that make a difference, and that is where the candidates end up spending almost all of their time.
“So it ends up making a national contest for the presidency actually look like several state-wide contests with candidates spending a lot of time talking about State and local issues in those parts of the country,” said Dr Rozell.
High Commissioner of the Federal Government of Nigeria to Botswana, His Excellency Umar Zainab Salisu, has challenged President Dr Mokgweetsi Masisi to move swiftly and lobby Africa’s richest man, Nigerian Billionaire, Aliko Dangote to invest in Botswana.
Speaking during a meeting with President Masisi at Office of President on Thursday Zainab Salisu said Dangote has expressed massive interest in setting up billion dollar industries in Botswana. “We have a lot of investors who wish to come and invest in Botswana , when we look at Botswana we don’t see Botswana itself , but we are lured by its geographic location , being in the centre of Southern Africa presents a good opportunity for strategic penetration into other markets of the region,” said Salisu.
As murder cases and violent incidents involving couples and or lovers continue to be recorded daily, Specially Elected Member of Parliament, Dr Unity Dow has called for more funding of non-governmental organizations and accelerated action from government to come up with laws that could inhibit would-be perpetrators of crimes related to Gender Based Violence (GBV).
Just after Dr Dow had deposited her views on this subject with this reporter, a young man in Molepolole opened fire on a married woman he was having an affair with; and ended her life instantly. While it is this heinous cases that get projected to the public space, the former minister argues that the secrecy culture is keeping other real GBV cases under wraps in many spaces in the country.
The former Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation said there is GBV all the time in all kinds of places. “We have become accustomed to stories of rapes, marital rapes, defilement of children, beatings and psychological violence and even killings,” she said.
Gender-based violence is a phenomenon deeply rooted in gender inequality, Dow is worried that there is absolutely no social punishment for perpetrators; they will continue to have the same friends, jobs, wives, homes, as before. Yet another factor, she said, is that there is little or no “justice” for victims of GBV.
The renowned activist said justice for GBV victims is not just the jailing of the perpetrator. “Justice for victims means an agile, victim-friendly, accessible (time, money and procedures) and restorative justice system.”
Asked what could be leading to a spike in Gender Based Violence cases or incidents, she observed that there is no one factor to which this spike can be attributed. “The most obvious factor is stress as a result of economic distress and or poverty. Poverty makes one vulnerable and open to compromises that they would otherwise not make. For perpetrators with anger management issues, economic stress leads to lashing out to those closest to them. Another factor is the disintegration of families and family values,” she opined.
According to Dow, no government anywhere in the world is doing enough, period. “We know the places and spaces where women and girls are unsafe. We know the challenges they face in their attempts to exit those spaces and places.” The former Judge of the High Court said GBV undermines the health, dignity, security and autonomy of its victims, yet it remains shrouded in the culture of silence.
Asked what could be done to arrest GBV cases, Dow said it is critical to involve and fund civil society organizations. She observed that much of the progress done in the area of women’s human rights was during the time when Botswana had strong and funded civil society organizations.
“The funding dried up when Botswana was declared a middle-income country but unfortunately external funding was not replaced by local funding,” she acknowledged.
Further Dow said relevant government institutions must be funded and strengthened.
“Thirdly, create a society in which it is not okay to humiliate, rape, beat or kill women. You create this by responding to GBV the same way we have responded to livestock theft. We need to create agile mechanisms that hear cases quickly and allow for the removal of suspected perpetrators from their homes, work places, boards, committees, etc.”
The former Minister said the much anticipated Inter-Ministerial Task Force on Gender Based Violence will have its work cut out for it. According to Dow, GBV is not just a justice issue, it’s not just a gender issue, but rather an issue that cuts across health, education, labour, economic, housing and politics. “As long as any one believes it is someone else’s problem, we will all have the problem,” she said.
In her view, Dow said every work, educational and other place must have a GBV Policy and/or Code of Conduct. “It is important that we acknowledge that the majority of men are law-abiding. The problem is their silence, in the face of injustice,” she observed.