The Botswana Competition Authority has said post- merger impact assessment regarding mergers and acquisitions since 2011 shows that a majority of their decisions have had a positive impact on job creation and citizen empowerment.
Giving a 2016/17 assessment report, Director of Mergers and Monopolies, Madeline Gabaraane said this year alone, they assessed six mergers of which five of them were approved and by far are performing to expectation. She said most of the mergers attracted public interest as the authority was interested in protecting jobs and creating employment as well as advancing business expansion from those acquisitions and mergers.
It emerged at the briefing that the Authority has been assessing mergers and acquisitions; and making determinations pertaining to mergers and acquisitions since November 2011. The Authority’s mandate with regards to the assessment of mergers and acquisitions does not end at the stage of issuing a decision but extends to the post-decision stage through conducting compliance monitoring and post-merger impact assessments. The post-merger impact assessments are intended to establish the market effects of the decisions taken by the Authority.
“The post-merger assessments provide an opportunity to check whether the conditions/remedies imposed were sound, given the information available at the time; and if the assumptions on which the conditions were made were sensible. The following seven (7) transactions are a summary of the cases that were assessed during the 2015/16 and 2016/17 Post-merger Impact Assessments,” said Gabaraane.
Gabaraane gave a report card on the acquisition of 100% interest in the operations of the liquid Petroleum Gases (LPG) of Puma energy by Easigas Botswana which was approved by the authority. She indicated that it was doing well at the moment, “The impact of approving the take-over has beard fruit. Through Easigas Botswana employment creation and maintenance has been recorded, stability in the supply of LPG supply in Botswana. Further there has been advancement of citizen economic empowerment initiatives,” Gabaraane said on Thursday morning.
LACK OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
However she said they are concerned by the citizen participation in the mergers. “Most of these are cross border and we concerned by the low citizen participation. We will influence them in the future to take part in.” Citing an example, Gabaraane said this is worsened by the fact that the citizen owned company, such as Pinks family outfitters which was controlling 22 Woolworths franchise stores will be taken by Leaping Eagles investment from South Africa, 100% control interests in Woolworths Group.
Retailing and Manufacturing companies are said to be leading the chain in both mergers and acquisitions, mostly from South Africa. By far the authority is traversing the road to prosperity in competition. They blocked Choppies attempts to take over Payless and Super Save supermarkets. In the year under review the authority refused to give G4S the green light to acquire both Trojan and Shield security companies as it raised competition concerns. “The merger would result in reduced competition due to the removal of a small but significant competitor and enhanced market power for the acquiring enterprises,” Gabaraane said.
Out of the six acquisitions G4S was the only one rejected. Others were approved looking at the fact employment will not be lost, and there would be network expansion. Others were allowed to be swallowed by international investors under conditions that they will source raw materials from citizen owned companies and that they will retain staff complement.
JOB CREATION IS ALSO KEY
From Gabaraane’s report it was evident that the Competition Authority pays attention to citizen empowerment and or participation in the mergers. When the Authority approved the acquisition of 100% interest in the operations of the LPG business of Puma Energy Botswana by Easigas Botswana, it was on the condition that: The merged entity does not engage in any conduct or activity that is tantamount to abusing its dominant market position since it is classified as a dominant firm as per Section 4(a) of the Competition Regulations;
and Further, that the proposed merging entities that during their establishment of the merger and their future existence, they should take cognisance of the need to advance citizen economic empowerment initiatives or enhance the competitiveness of citizen-owned small and medium sized enterprises.
Following an impact assessment, it was established that on ‘Employment creation or maintenance’ the merger yielded positive results. “As at the time of the transaction, there were no stand-alone employees dedicated to the running of the LPG division of Puma Energy Botswana but by end of January 2017, Easigas Botswana reported a staff complement of 20 Batswana working full time directly under Easigas Botswana. Furthermore, through Easigas Botswana’s leasing of their distribution plants to be independently managed, a total of 68 individuals were employed between the four different depots.”
The merger also led to stability in the supply of LPG in Botswana. The Authority reported that Easigas Botswana has managed to constantly supply LPG in Botswana following the consummation of the merger, and did not endanger continuity of supplies, as per section 59(1).
On the important aspect of advancement of citizen economic empowerment initiatives, the Competition Authority has established that Easigas Botswana has since adopted a strategy to assist indigenous Batswana businesses, especially those that are youth-led, in retailing LPG to corporate clients.
“Easigas Botswana’s support to the youth-owned companies has been in the form of assisting these businesses to set up cages necessary for the required handling of LPG cylinders, as well as through offering those businesses credit facility. Moreover, Easigas Botswana provides technical support to these companies, in order to ensure service standards are maintained,” said Gabaraane.
Another transactions that was approved in April 2012 and in April 2015, respectively, taking into consideration the commitments made by Manuli Fluiconnecto Holdings B.V. Led to employment creation as a result of expansion. It has emerged that Manuli has been able to employ seventeen (17) additional employees through the two (2) new Service Points (Palapye and Karowe Mine) and expansion of the Francistown Service Point.
The decision also led to the establishment of a partnership programme to train local apprentices. Fluid Systems Botswana has completed training of three (3) students from Selebi-Phikwe Technical College and other stakeholders that normally require their services, such as the Botswana Defence Force (BDF), local colleges and universities. The company is also in regular contact with the Botswana Qualifications Authority (BQA) for advice in an effort to provide quality training.
The Competition Authority is the primary enforcement agency for competition law and policy. It was established under the Competition Act of 2009 to monitor, control and prohibit anti-competitive trade or business practices in the economy of Botswana. The Competition Authority is a parastatal which falls under the Ministry of Trade and Industry.
PROTECT YOUR FINANCES THIS HOLIDAY SEASON: A GUIDE TO FRAUD PREVENTION
November marks Fraud Awareness Month across the world and Bank Gaborone has a dedicated mission to inform the public of evolving threats. The holiday season is a time for celebration, togetherness, and giving. However, it’s also a time when the risk of financial fraud increases.
Common Types of Financial Fraud During the Holidays
- Online Shopping Scams: With the rise of online shopping, scammers often create fake e-commerce websites to steal your money and personal information.
- Sim Swap: Fraudsters may try to gain control of your phone number by swapping your SIM card, which can lead to unauthorized access to your accounts.
- Application Fraud: Be cautious when downloading apps, as some may be malicious and designed to steal your data.
- Travel Scams: Planning a holiday trip? Watch out for fake travel deals and websites that can lead to disappointment and financial loss.
- Identity Theft: Protect your personal information, as identity theft can have far-reaching consequences, both financially and emotionally.
- Phishing and Email Scams: Scammers often send deceptive emails and messages, trying to trick you into revealing sensitive information or making payments.
- Mobile Network Fraud: Be cautious about unsolicited calls or messages requesting personal information or payments.
How You Can Identify Potential Fraud
To protect yourself from financial fraud, keep an eye out for the following signs:
- Unexpected Transactions: Check your account statements regularly for any transactions, withdrawals, or purchases that you didn’t initiate.
- Unauthorized Account Activity: Pay attention to notifications of login attempts or changes to your account details that you didn’t initiate.
- Phishing Attempts: Be cautious about emails, calls, or messages requesting sensitive information or payments, especially from unknown or suspicious sources.
At Bank Gaborone, we are committed to ensuring the security of your finances. Our Bank Gaborone 360 initiative encompasses several security features:
- 3D Secure Cards: All our cards are equipped with 3D secure technology, which means that an OTP (One-Time Password) is sent with every purchase for your approval, adding an extra layer of security.
- 24/7 Call Centre: Our round-the-clock customer centre is ready to assist you at any time. If you have questions, concerns, or need assistance related to your account’s security, simply give us a call 3158681 at any hour of the day.
- Secure Online Mobile app: To enhance security and ease of access, you can use your biometric authentication to log in to the app and authenticate transaction. An additional layer of protection is provided through two-factor authentication.
Security tips for customers
- Avoid sharing personal information – the Bank will never ask for login credentials, personal details, card numbers, or OTPs.
- Exercise caution when receiving unexpected links or messages.
- Ensure your device is protected with a screen lock and refrain from storing passwords on the device or in the cloud.
- Promptly report lost or stolen devices to the bank for immediate action.
What to Do If You Fall Victim to Fraud
If you suspect that you have fallen victim to a fraud attempt, it’s essential to act quickly:
- Report the incident to the bank immediately.
- Block your card.
- Contact the customer centre at 3158681 for assistance and guidance.
As you enjoy the holiday season, we urge you to stay vigilant and prioritise the security of your finances. Safeguarding your assets is a shared responsibility, and Bank Gaborone is committed to supporting you in this effort. Remember that you are not alone in this journey. Your bank is here to protect your financial interests and guide you through any challenges you may face. By being proactive and following the tips and security measures outlined in this article, you can ensure that your holidays are joyful, secure, and free from financial fraud.
Challenging times as GROWTH IS EXPECTED TO SLOW DOWN IN 2023
The third quarter of 2023 has been characterised by a worsening of global economic conditions, with global growth forecasts revised downwards by the IMF, rising fuel prices, and the expectation that interest rates will remain “high for longer”. This has impacted on the global diamond market, which has experienced a persistent weakening of demand through the year. Domestically, annual GDP growth has fallen, but remains in line with expectations. Inflation has risen, also as expected, and is likely to rise further in the coming months, driven mainly by global factors.
The IMF released its new World Economic Outlook (WEO) in early October, just after the end of the quarter. The IMF predicts a slowdown in global growth to 3.0% in 2023, down from 3.5% in 2022. Growth is projected to fall slightly further, to 2.9%, in 2024. Current and projected global GDP growth rates remain well below historical averages. The IMF notes that three factors are driving the slowdown in growth.
One is the tailing off of the post-COVID economic recovery, particularly following the very strong 2022 recovery in travel and tourism. The second is the consequence of the tighter monetary policy implemented in most countries to bring inflation down, with tightening of credit conditions impacting on aggregate demand. Third, the impact of the commodity price shock following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine persists, notably through higher energy prices, reducing real incomes in energy importing countries and of consumers generally. To what extent have these factors had an impact on Botswana? Certainly economic growth is tailing off, with annual GDP growth down to 5.0% in Q2 2023, with a projected further decline to 3.8% for the year as a whole.
However, the slowdown appears to be having a greater impact on sectors that have a domestic focus (such as agriculture, food manufacturing, wholesale and retail, and other domestic services). The main outward-facing sector that has experienced a severe slowdown is diamond trading (discussed more below). With regard to monetary policy tightening, Botswana is feeling the impact of global developments, but there has been no real domestic impact given that the Bank of Botswana has hardly tightened monetary policy while many other central banks have raised policy rates significantly. But Botswana has felt the impact of higher energy prices, which remain elevated despite some easing earlier in 2023, and there has been a squeeze on real incomes and living standards as a result.
The major impact of adverse global conditions has been experienced in the diamond market. This has not yet fed through to diamond mining which, perhaps surprisingly, was up 7.1% in the 12 months to June 2023. This may just be “the calm before the storm”, however. Diamond sales through DBGSS are down 31% over the first eight sales cycles of 2023 compared to the same period last year, and Okavango Diamond Company is experiencing similar pressures. It will not be possible to continue expanding mining with sales contracting, as the required stockpiling becomes increasingly expensive. The global diamond market has been buffeted by multiple adverse factors during the year. Restrained consumer demand in the US, notwithstanding some resilience in the US economy, has been one factor, compounded by weak post-COVID recovery in China. Recent demand may have been impacted by a sharp increase in diamond prices in 2022, when demand was strong, but the industry is now paying the price. Synthetic diamonds are taking increasing market share, at much lower prices than natural diamonds. With slowing demand, downstream participants in the diamond value chain (cutters and polishers, traders, jewellery manufacturers and retailers) have all cut back on purchases as their stocks have risen, impacting rough diamond demand. As a result, De Beers have announced that sightholders would be permitted to defer up to 100% of their contracted purchases for the remainder of 2023 while Okavango Diamond Company cancelled its planned November auction.
Inflation and interest rates
After the sharp drop in inflation from its peak of 14.6% in August 2022 to 1.2% a year later, the increase to 3,2% in September was not unexpected. Fuel prices have been the main driver of changes in inflation over the past two years, in part because international oil prices have been so volatile, combined with their very high weight in the Botswana Consumer Price Index (CPI) basket. After the upsurge in oil prices caused by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, to over US$110 per barrel in June 2022, prices fell to just over $70 a barrel in March this year. The decline enabled pump prices to be reduced, leading to the dramatic fall inflation as the previous year’s increases dropped out of the annual inflation calculation. In recent months, however, the deliberate actions by OPEC+ member states to restrict production and supply have pushed prices back over $90 per barrel, a selfish move seemingly calculated to put further pressure on households across the world who have already been badly impacted by the cost-of living crisis. In Botswana, regulated pump prices – which are determined under a highly politicised adjustment mechanism – have lagged the increase in global prices. For instance, the price increase in late October came about a month after the relevant increases in global prices. Following this increase, we expect inflation to continue to rise through to the end of 2023 and into 2024, when it is likely to temporarily go above the upper end of the BoB’s 3-6% inflation objective range. This means that there is unlikely to be any reduction in the BoB’s monetary policy rate (MoPR) in the near future.
The Ministry of Finance’s draft Budget Strategy Paper (BSP) was released in September, and provided updated information on the outturn of the 2022-23 budget, revisions to the current year (2023-24) budget, and the medium-term fiscal framework out to 2026-27. The fiscal data shows a continuation of recent trends, with an (unplanned) balanced budget for 2022-23; a (planned) deficit budget for 2023-24 and 2024-25, and a (planned) balanced or surplus budget for the outer years of the projections, which would mark the beginning of the NDP 12 period. There is a consistent story in the BSP which relates to the need for fiscal consolidation (discussed further in our special feature). In a parallel with Saint Augustine’s famous prayer (“Lord, make me chaste, but not yet”), fiscal consolidation – in the form of a balanced or surplus budget – is always a year or two away. For instance, the BSP released in September 2022 projected a balanced budget from 2023/24 onwards. However, the September 2023 BSP now indicates a balanced budget two years later, from 2025/26 onwards. This largely reflects the dramatic increase in development spending first proposed in the 2023 Budget for 2023/24 and set to be continued in subsequent years. That relates to planned budgets. Outturns are quite different. In both 2021/22 and 2022/23 large projected deficits did not materialise, and in both years, budgets were broadly balanced, due mainly to significant underspending on the development budget, along with higher-than-expected mineral revenues. Notwithstanding a large (47%) planned increase in development spending in the current fiscal year, it seems quite possible that, as in the last two years, the development budget will be underspent and the budget will end up being broadly balanced – although there may be risks on the revenue side if the diamond market continues to deteriorate. Even though the outcomes are good (balanced budgets), the fact that these are unplanned reflects negatively on the quality of fiscal planning and budgetary control.
The rest of 2023 and early 2024 looks likely to be an uncertain and somewhat challenging time for the economy. The main concern is the depressed state of the global diamond market, and the potential impact on economic growth, exports and government revenues – although it is important to note that no negative impact on these important economic indicators has yet been realised. The likelihood that inflation will rise in the coming months means that domestic interest rates are likely to be maintained – at levels that are low by international standards – for the foreseeable future. Projections of adverse climatic conditions in the coming months – with forecasts of higher temperatures and lower rainfall – are likely to have a negative impact on agriculture, water supplies and tourism, and illustrate the longer-term challenges posed by global climate change. Fortunately, Botswana’s critical financial buffers – in the form of the Government Investment Account at the BoB and the foreign exchange reserves – have been rising, assisting the ability of the economy to withstand possible shocks, at least in the short term.
(Adopted from Econsult Economic Review Q3)
Thamane Launches AADFI Working Group on Climate Change to Support African DFIs
The Association of African Development Finance Institutions (AADFI) has taken a significant step towards addressing the pressing issue of climate change by launching a working group dedicated to this cause. The working group aims to support AADFI member institutions and the wider African DFI community in tackling the challenges posed by climate change.
The launch of the working group occurred on November 9, 2023, immediately following the opening ceremony of the AADFI 2023 Annual General Assembly in Egypt. The theme of the assembly was “The Role of African DFIs in Achieving Just Energy Transition,” highlighting the importance of sustainable energy practices in combating climate change.
Thabo Thamane, Chairman of AADFI and CEO of Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA), announced the launch of the working group and introduced its members and objectives. The group was approved by the AADFI Board of Directors on August 28, 2023, following a resolution made at the previous annual general assembly.
The working group is chaired by the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA), with Boitumelo Mosako, CEO of DBSA, leading the efforts. Mr. Olymous Manthata, Head of Climate Finance at DBSA, will coordinate the working group’s activities.
Comprised of member institutions dedicated to driving the climate agenda within their organizations and communities, the working group plays a crucial role in supporting AADFI member institutions and the wider African DFI community in addressing climate challenges. It serves as a strategic platform for generating ideas and actions that will enable the association and its members to remain relevant in the climate change agenda.
The working group has several key responsibilities. Firstly, it will support efforts to create a roadmap for African DFIs to accelerate their involvement in addressing climate challenges. This includes leading the effort in attracting technical assistance and support to build the skills and capacity of member DFIs in dealing with climate change.
Additionally, the working group will guide African national DFIs in mobilizing finance and identifying funding opportunities for green projects. It will also play a crucial role in raising green bonds and collaborating with the African Financial Alliance on Climate Change (AFAC) to represent the interests of AADFI members in the alliance. Furthermore, the working group will leverage support from partners such as the African Development Bank (AfDB), the Global Center on Adaptation, and the Green Climate Fund (GCF) to facilitate member DFIs’ actions on climate change.
The working group’s ultimate goal is to drive meaningful change and accelerate Africa’s just energy transition by collaborating with various stakeholders and partners. Thamane urged all member institutions to actively support the working group and participate in its activities. He expressed his gratitude to the DBSA for taking the lead role in the working group and expressed confidence in its ability to deliver on its mandate.
In conclusion, the launch of the AADFI working group on climate change marks a significant step towards addressing the challenges posed by climate change in Africa. By supporting member institutions and the wider African DFI community, the working group aims to drive meaningful change and accelerate Africa’s just energy transition. With the support of various stakeholders and partners, the working group has the potential to make a significant impact in combating climate change and ensuring a sustainable future for Africa.