The Botswana Competition Authority has said post- merger impact assessment regarding mergers and acquisitions since 2011 shows that a majority of their decisions have had a positive impact on job creation and citizen empowerment.
Giving a 2016/17 assessment report, Director of Mergers and Monopolies, Madeline Gabaraane said this year alone, they assessed six mergers of which five of them were approved and by far are performing to expectation. She said most of the mergers attracted public interest as the authority was interested in protecting jobs and creating employment as well as advancing business expansion from those acquisitions and mergers.
It emerged at the briefing that the Authority has been assessing mergers and acquisitions; and making determinations pertaining to mergers and acquisitions since November 2011. The Authority’s mandate with regards to the assessment of mergers and acquisitions does not end at the stage of issuing a decision but extends to the post-decision stage through conducting compliance monitoring and post-merger impact assessments. The post-merger impact assessments are intended to establish the market effects of the decisions taken by the Authority.
“The post-merger assessments provide an opportunity to check whether the conditions/remedies imposed were sound, given the information available at the time; and if the assumptions on which the conditions were made were sensible. The following seven (7) transactions are a summary of the cases that were assessed during the 2015/16 and 2016/17 Post-merger Impact Assessments,” said Gabaraane.
Gabaraane gave a report card on the acquisition of 100% interest in the operations of the liquid Petroleum Gases (LPG) of Puma energy by Easigas Botswana which was approved by the authority. She indicated that it was doing well at the moment, “The impact of approving the take-over has beard fruit. Through Easigas Botswana employment creation and maintenance has been recorded, stability in the supply of LPG supply in Botswana. Further there has been advancement of citizen economic empowerment initiatives,” Gabaraane said on Thursday morning.
LACK OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
However she said they are concerned by the citizen participation in the mergers. “Most of these are cross border and we concerned by the low citizen participation. We will influence them in the future to take part in.” Citing an example, Gabaraane said this is worsened by the fact that the citizen owned company, such as Pinks family outfitters which was controlling 22 Woolworths franchise stores will be taken by Leaping Eagles investment from South Africa, 100% control interests in Woolworths Group.
Retailing and Manufacturing companies are said to be leading the chain in both mergers and acquisitions, mostly from South Africa. By far the authority is traversing the road to prosperity in competition. They blocked Choppies attempts to take over Payless and Super Save supermarkets. In the year under review the authority refused to give G4S the green light to acquire both Trojan and Shield security companies as it raised competition concerns. “The merger would result in reduced competition due to the removal of a small but significant competitor and enhanced market power for the acquiring enterprises,” Gabaraane said.
Out of the six acquisitions G4S was the only one rejected. Others were approved looking at the fact employment will not be lost, and there would be network expansion. Others were allowed to be swallowed by international investors under conditions that they will source raw materials from citizen owned companies and that they will retain staff complement.
JOB CREATION IS ALSO KEY
From Gabaraane’s report it was evident that the Competition Authority pays attention to citizen empowerment and or participation in the mergers. When the Authority approved the acquisition of 100% interest in the operations of the LPG business of Puma Energy Botswana by Easigas Botswana, it was on the condition that: The merged entity does not engage in any conduct or activity that is tantamount to abusing its dominant market position since it is classified as a dominant firm as per Section 4(a) of the Competition Regulations;
and Further, that the proposed merging entities that during their establishment of the merger and their future existence, they should take cognisance of the need to advance citizen economic empowerment initiatives or enhance the competitiveness of citizen-owned small and medium sized enterprises.
Following an impact assessment, it was established that on ‘Employment creation or maintenance’ the merger yielded positive results. “As at the time of the transaction, there were no stand-alone employees dedicated to the running of the LPG division of Puma Energy Botswana but by end of January 2017, Easigas Botswana reported a staff complement of 20 Batswana working full time directly under Easigas Botswana. Furthermore, through Easigas Botswana’s leasing of their distribution plants to be independently managed, a total of 68 individuals were employed between the four different depots.”
The merger also led to stability in the supply of LPG in Botswana. The Authority reported that Easigas Botswana has managed to constantly supply LPG in Botswana following the consummation of the merger, and did not endanger continuity of supplies, as per section 59(1). On the important aspect of advancement of citizen economic empowerment initiatives, the Competition Authority has established that Easigas Botswana has since adopted a strategy to assist indigenous Batswana businesses, especially those that are youth-led, in retailing LPG to corporate clients.
“Easigas Botswana’s support to the youth-owned companies has been in the form of assisting these businesses to set up cages necessary for the required handling of LPG cylinders, as well as through offering those businesses credit facility. Moreover, Easigas Botswana provides technical support to these companies, in order to ensure service standards are maintained,” said Gabaraane.
Another transactions that was approved in April 2012 and in April 2015, respectively, taking into consideration the commitments made by Manuli Fluiconnecto Holdings B.V. Led to employment creation as a result of expansion. It has emerged that Manuli has been able to employ seventeen (17) additional employees through the two (2) new Service Points (Palapye and Karowe Mine) and expansion of the Francistown Service Point.
The decision also led to the establishment of a partnership programme to train local apprentices. Fluid Systems Botswana has completed training of three (3) students from Selebi-Phikwe Technical College and other stakeholders that normally require their services, such as the Botswana Defence Force (BDF), local colleges and universities. The company is also in regular contact with the Botswana Qualifications Authority (BQA) for advice in an effort to provide quality training.
The Competition Authority is the primary enforcement agency for competition law and policy. It was established under the Competition Act of 2009 to monitor, control and prohibit anti-competitive trade or business practices in the economy of Botswana. The Competition Authority is a parastatal which falls under the Ministry of Trade and Industry.
Cryptocurrencies have become the talk of the town, a major bone of contention for some and an opportunity towards new investment frontiers for others.
For many African economies, cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin have become major game-changers, allowing vendors to avoid the evils of inflation, and allowing new and dynamic African investors to take advantage of crypto’s soaring prices.
Outside of Bitcoin, other crypto projects have also taken precedent and provided investors with new frontiers within the cryptocurrency realm. In this article, we explore the four best crypto projects in 2022 for Africans to invest in.
Polkadot is often referred to as a ‘blockchain of blockchains’ whose main objective is to facilitate the building of new networks and make this easier for developers.
It allows users to develop new blockchains that work in concert with current ones without relying on complicated bridging protocols.
The network enables these chains to be entirely configurable without sacrificing the underlying security and safety. The most extensive capability of Polkadot, however, is powering the Web 3.0 revolution.
2. Yellow Card
Yellow Card was launched in 2016 by Chris Maurice and Justin Poiroux with the intention of enabling Africans at home and abroad to purchase and sell Bitcoin using their local currency via bank transfer, cash, and mobile money.
The firm was formally launched in 2019 in Nigeria where it has over 35,000 merchants and was believed to have processed more than US$165 million in crypto remittances in 2020 alone. That same year, it expanded operations to South Africa and Botswana and raised $1.5m seed capital to offer its services in Kenya and Cameroon.
In 2021, Yellow Card will be adding new capabilities to facilitate more frictionless transactions. The app will support some local languages, including Igbo, Arabic, Afrikaans, French, Hausa, Luganda, Mandarin, Portuguese, and Swahili.
Currently one of the fastest crypto networks around, Solana spearheads the research and implementation of contemporary technologies like dApps and smart contracts. It is one of the only tokens that can operate both on a proof-of-history and a proof-of-stake consensus scheme. The SOL network also handles more than 50,000 transactions every second, the quickest so far.
While Solana was not the first network to utilize smart contracts, it today has more than 350 distinct projects running on its network. It also restored more than 17,000 percent of its value in the previous 12 months, presently standing as one of the top 10 currencies by market cap, valued at $53 billion roughly.
4. Akoin City
Akon is creating a futuristic $6 billion Akon City in Senegal, which will use the akoin cryptocurrency (AKN) as its primary currency.
As of November 11, 2020, akoin began trading on Bittrex Global versus BTC and USDT as a pilot for Akon Metropolis and was made available for payment in a tech city in Kenya the next year.
Estimated 20,000 workers are expected to be paid in the akoin cryptocurrency by the end of 2021, with 35,000 citizens and more than 2,000 retailers expected to use the system.
Commercial Banks credit increased by 7.4 percent year-on-year in September 2021, higher than the 4.4 percent growth in the corresponding period in 2020, according to the Bank of Botswana’s Financial Stability report released last week. The acceleration in commercial bank credit growth was largely due to the higher growth in household credit over the review period.
In addition, credit growth has been trending upwards since the end of the 2021 first quarter, partly reflecting base effects associated with the fall in credit in the previous year 2020, and an improvement in demand for and supply of credit. Household credit increased to P44.8 billion in September 2021, from P41.3 billion in September 2020, on the back of a significant increase of 11percent in personal loans.
Business loans, on the other hand, increased by 5.5 percent over the period under review, due to an increase in credit to parastatals and finance sectors. However, loans extended to the mining, electricity and water, construction, trade, restaurants and bars, manufacturing and transport and communications sectors decreased. The share of business credit to total credit decreased from 35.2 percent in September 2020 to 34.6 percent in September 2021, while that of households increased from 64.8 percent to 65.4 percent during the same period.
Total credit as a percentage of GDP grew steadily between 2010 and 2020, at an average rate of 12.4 percent. The Bank of Botswana says Credit growth is in line with its long-term trend and thus not likely to overheat the economy. “In this context, there is scope for increased, disciplined and prudent credit extension to support economic activity” experts at the Central Bank noted. Commercial banks’ leverage ratio was 7.8 percent in August 2021, a decrease from the 8.5 percent in August 2020; but indicative of the banking sector’s strength to withstand negative shocks, according to BoB.
Furthermore, commercial banks’ average capital adequacy ratio was 18.5 percent in August 2021, thus according to the Bank of Botswana, indicating the sector’s resilience to unexpected losses. The BoB says the banking industry’s strong capital base is further augmented by the modest level of non-performing loans (NPLs) to total loans ratio of 3.7 percent in August 2021 (4.5 percent in August 2020). However, the full effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on corporate performance, banks’ level of NPLs, profitability and capitalization are yet to be observed.
Zooming into the household space the financial stability report observed that households’ vulnerability to sudden and sharp changes in financial conditions. Household credit grew by 8.5 percent in the twelve months to September 2021, higher than the 7.4 percent growth recorded in the year to September 2020. The relatively higher growth rate of household credit was due to base effects and an improvement in credit conditions, both supply and demand.
Credit to households continued to dominate total commercial bank credit, at P44.8 billion (65.4 percent) in September 2021 and was mostly concentrated in unsecured lending (72.5 percent). The proportion of unsecured loans to total credit remains higher than the 24.4 percent and 30.8 percent reported in South Africa and Namibia, respectively.
Experts at the Central Bank have cautioned that the significant share of unsecured loans and advances has the potential to cause household financial distress, given the inherently expensive and short-term nature of such credit. “Therefore, households remain vulnerable to sudden and sharp tightening of financial conditions” However, the BoB noted that household debt is aligned to trends in income. Household debt as a proportion of household income is estimated at 37.5 percent in the third quarter of 2021, a decrease from the 47 percent in the same period in 2020.
This ratio according to the BoB remains relatively low when compared to the 79.9 percent and 75 percent for Namibia and South Africa, respectively. “In this respect, domestic household borrowing is in line with trends in personal incomes, implying a relatively strong debt servicing capacity” the bank said Consequently, the ratio of household NPLs to total household credit was modest at 3.5 percent in June 2021, slightly lower than the 3.9 percent in June 2020 and significantly better than the industry average of 4.1 percent in June 2021.
Household borrowing also dominates credit granted by the Non-Banking Financial Services (NBFIs) sector, although the level of household exposure in the sector remains relatively low compared to that of commercial banks. The level of household indebtedness in Botswana is, however, considered low by international standards, at 24.9 percent of GDP in the first quarter of 2021, compared to, for example, 26.2 percent, 33.9 percent and 52.8 percent for Mauritius, Namibia and South Africa, respectively.
The quality of bank credit improved in August 2021 as indicated by the decline in the ratio of non-performing loans (NPLs) to total loans to 3.7 percent in August 2021, from 4.5 percent in August 2020. The Bank of Botswana advised that to maintain low to modest NPLs and help vulnerable groups in the context of COVID-19 induced economic disturbances, there is need to keep in place targeted support to illiquid but solvent firms and affected households and make the support state-contingent or conditional to reduce moral hazard.
Experts at the Bank underscored that overall, “there is no indication of excessive and rapid credit growth that could threaten the stability of the financial system” Average daily market liquidity in the banking system fell to P5.4 billion in October 2021 from P6.2 billion in September 2021. The fall in market liquidity is due to persistent foreign exchange outflows. Nevertheless, banks continued to comply with the minimum liquid asset ratio requirement of 10 percent and supported moderate growth in demand for credit, with a financial intermediation ratio of 81.3 percent in August 2021, which is slightly above the desired range of 50 – 80 percent.
Commercial banks’ funding structure continues to be concentrated in a few large depositors, mainly business deposits, highlighting potential funding risks due to the undiversified deposit base. This notwithstanding, funding risks are mitigated by the inherently long-term structure of bank deposits, mainly fixed deposits, thus giving banks an opportunity to respond accordingly in case of short-term funding shocks.
In August 2021, fixed deposits (including savings deposits) accounted for 46 percent of the deposit base and were further augmented by the 27 percent for checking/current accounts, which are behaviourally stable/core deposits. In terms of macro-financial interlinkages and contagion risk, banks continue to have significant linkages with the rest of the financial system and the real sector.
The strong interconnectedness between the banking system and NBFIs, as well as the non-financial sector (households and corporates) pose a risk of contagion in the domestic financial system, although effective regulation across the system, as well as proper governance and accountability structures moderate the risk. Furthermore, most of the retail and household loans have credit life protection, mortgage repayment policies and retrenchment cover policies provided by insurance companies, effectively shifting banking risks to the insurance sector.
As major mining companies leave the coal business, under pressure to comply with international campaigns of clean energy, local junior coal producer Minergy says it stands ready to rise to the occasion and service the demand in the regional market.
On Thursday, the company, which unearths thermal coal from its wholly owned Masama Mine near Medie village in the South East District of Botswana provided a market update to its investors and stakeholders for the six months period ending December 2021. Minergy is listed on the Botswana Stock Exchange, backed by Government investment arms Botswana Development Corporation (BDC) and Mineral Development Company Botswana (MDC), the company started producing first saleable coal from Masama in August 2019.
The company said it expects the international pricing for Southern Africa coal to remain high, driven by the continued China/Australian standoff and Indonesian export restrictions. “Coal supply is under pressure, with demand increasing as several majors divest from coal given the negative coal narrative. Minergy expects an undersupply in the regional market as a result,” said a statement from the company. During the second half of the year 2021 substantial progress was made towards reaching nameplate capacity at the Masama Coal Mine.
Achievements included producing the highest six-monthly volumes across all disciplines since the inception of the mine. With support from its mining contractor, Minergy said is now capable of achieving nameplate capacity of 125,000 tonnes per month. Overburden volumes increased fourfold versus the comparative six-month period. A similar trend was evident in the amount of coal that was extracted, with growth of 100% being achieved. Record tonnage in excess of 110,000 tonnes of coal was mined in October 2021.
Stage 4 of the Processing Plant (Rigid Screening and Stock Handling section) was also successfully commissioned. Plant construction is thus complete, and is now fully operational as designed. Resulting benefits include savings in processing costs, a stabilised supply, and further support for achieving nameplate capacity. Daily average feed rates increased significantly and are being consistently achieved. Processed volumes increased in line with mining data, with yields remaining stable, and a record throughput of 108,000 tonnes was achieved in October 2021.
However, lower volumes were recorded during November and December 2021, impacted by the new COVID-19 variant and the related effect on workforce availability and border access, as well as by rain interruptions and lower regional sales as explained below. Minergy said with the nameplate capacity now achievable, going forward strategic focus will now be on sales to support the increased saleable product.
This will enable Minergy to generate sufficient cash flow to stabilise the business. Major cement and steel producers have, however, notified Minergy of plant shutdowns early in 2022. Alternative placement of product will be sought. In terms of the secondary listing, the company says the listing on an internationally recognised stock exchange remains an important strategic objective. “However, affordability and timing are key considerations, which are constantly being evaluated,” said Chief Executive Officer Morné du Plessis.
The ordinary share capital raise, approved by shareholders in February 2021, has garnered interest and Minergy is actively engaging with interested parties to progress this. Plessis noted that Eskom’s future strategy remains unclear, given the ambiguous messages broadcast by the power utility in recent months, and Minergy is waiting feedback on the requirements for coal supply into the South African power station market.
Minergy believes that countries such as Botswana and Namibia will pursue power independence from South Africa (illustrated by the Botswana tender and discussions with interested parties in Namibia) and finds itself located centrally to supply both South Africa and southern African countries. Minergy is also basing its fortunes on multibillion pula coal fueled power plant deal with Botswana Government.
The Botswana Government, through the Ministry of Mineral Resources, Green Technology and Energy Security (“MMGE”), has invited the Minergy and three other selected local bidders to tender for the design, finance, construction, ownership, operation, maintenance and decommissioning at the end of its economic life (minimum 30 years) of a 300MW (Net) Greenfields Coal-Fired Power Plant in Botswana, as an Independent Power Producer (“IPP”).
This forms part of the government’s 11th National Development and Integrated Resources Plan. It is expected that the power plant would be operational by 2026. The closing date for the bid is currently 30 March 2022. Minergy is partnering with Jarcon Power to submit the bid. If successful, Minergy Coal will be responsible for providing coal to the power plant for the duration of the Power Purchase Agreement of 30 years, and other income streams are also being envisaged.
This profitable sale of coal will have the benefit of ensuring a steady cash flow to Minergy, utilisation of current uneconomical coal seams and diversifying income streams. Importantly, Minergy is the only bidder to have an operational mine.