The National Development Bank (NDB) has joined the bandwagon of the underperforming in retrenching its staff, with scores of the bank staff, save the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) having been told that no one is guaranteed survival of the imminent chop from the country oldest parastatal. Staff Writer ALFRED MASOKOLA examines underlying factors that have rendered State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) inefficient, unprofitable and unsustainable.
State Owned Enterprises (SOEs), Public Enterprises or simply parastatals as it is the case here, are government owned or controlled institutions which were created with a clear mandate to engage in commercial activities.According to a report titled; “State-Owned Enterprises Catalysts for public value creation?” published by international auditing firm, PCW, public enterprises have been rising in influence in the global economy over the past decade.
For instance, the proportion of SOEs among the Fortune Global 500 has grown from 9 percent in 2005 to 23 percent in 2014, including a greater presence in the top rankings.China has been a model of what influence public enterprises can have in the economy, with corporation like Sinopec Group, China National Petroleum and State Grid having consistently made the top ten of Fortune 500.
SOEs have become tools for some countries to better position themselves for the future in the global economy given increased global competition for finance, talent, and resources. However, in Botswana, parastatals have become a burden in the economy in recent years, with government have to come to rescue on several occasions to bail them out. Botswana Meat Commission (BMC), National Development Bank (NDB), Botswana Power Corporation (BPC) and Air Botswana being some of the institutions that have knocked on doors of government seeking financial rescue.
Three of the above-mentioned institutions are monopolies, which even complicates matters on whether the problem with public enterprises their business models or the talent leading them. The BMC, WUC and Botswana BPC are among vital public enterprises that have been experiencing perennial losses for the past decade. In 2006, WUC, BMC and BPC made a combined net profit of P371.9 million while, in the latest budget speech, Finance Minister, Kenneth Matambo indicated that the three entities recorded a worrisome combined loss of P507. 5 million.
Duncan Majinda, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Botswana Accountancy Oversight Authority (BAOA), an institution with mandate to audit public enterprises tried to offer diagnosis on the matter. “A new area in our mandate was recently introduced in corporate governance and financial reporting monitoring. The initial results reflect that private and listed companies, and banks perform significantly better than state-owned enterprises,” Majinda told WeekendPost recently.
“In order to explain the reasons for differential performance, it is appropriate to use an analogy. The engine of a car is the most important component of the car without which it cannot operate. By the same token, in an organisation, the Board and executive management is the engine of the entity. Poorly constituted boards without the requisite balance of knowledge, skills and expertise are the main problems of poorly performing entities.”
Majinda contended that private and listed companies have very strong boards constituted along best international practice through corporate governance codes like King III and IV. “Parastatals on the other hand are dominated by pre-determines ex-officio appointments so that if there is such a balance, it is by coincidence rather than design. Committees such as renumeration, Nomination, Risk are not common with parastatals,” he argued.
Majinda however said there is obvious need to conscious of the nature of the mandates of these different entities as some are commercially oriented while others are geared towards providing a public good or service where commercial initiatives are constrained through, for example, controlled prices and levies.“That notwithstanding, good corporate governance can be applied right across industries and sectors, public or private, profit making or non-profit making, to ensure efficiency, effectiveness and economy in doing business. Good strong boards produce good and robust strategies that result in good strategic decisions,” he said.
Following a litany of calls from various quarters, including legislators and the business community over the need to merge some ministries in a bid to improve efficiency and profitability, Ministry of Investment, Trade and Industry have given in. “It has been observed that the mandates of some of the parastatals are converging resulting in some overlaps and duplications,” Minister of Trade, Bogolo Kenewendo, indicate in her first media briefing as minister.
“A rationalisation exercise is ongoing in that regard, and the exercise will go a long way in eliminating duplication of efforts across the ministry’s parastatals where existent, culminating in improved service quality.”While a backbencher, Kenewendo had made her believes known that a number of parastatals do have overlapping mandates therefore requiring a rationalisation that would produce efficiency.
With the rationalisation process likely to affect mostly the funding institutions under the supervision of trade ministry such as Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA), Botswana Development Corporation (BDC), Local Enterprise Authority (LEA) and possibly NDB, CEDA CEO, Thabo Thamane has cautioned government about the possibility of misdiagnosing the problem bedevilling public enterprises.
“I know what CEDA does, I have been here for the past 15 years; I know what LEA does, and I know what other financiers do. What is very critical is that we must be every carefully when making this analysis of merging public enterprises because their mandates were very specific,” he warned.
“It is one thing as for an institution that is not performing as per its mandate. If it does not perform, you do not just say you merge it. You basically say; why is it not performing? Is it the people or is it the mandate? So that is the starting point; If it is the people, you then put the right people so that they can make it perform; if it is the mandate, then review the mandate and then merge it with other institutions.”
Thamane contended that the last thing that government needs is to create a monster of an institution, because the bigger the institution, the bigger the process.“We welcome this idea of a possible review of the institutions, and where possible some will be merged. If they decide CEDA merges with other institution, I will take it, “he said.
BUSINESS MODEL FAILER: NDB CASE
NDB has found the going tough in recent years, with the bank riddled with perennial losses amid a funding model that has been ruled out as not sustainable. This year, the bank has found itself in dire crisis as it had only P10 million to disburse for loans. The situation has forced the bank to retrench employees, with P31 million budgeted for the exercise. In May this year, the bank’s executives approached Parliamentary Committee on Public Enterprises and Statutory Bodies to lobby for recaptialisation.
WeekendPost has established that NDB’s problems and bottlenecks are deeper than simply the matter of recapitalisation.The structure and sources of funding mean that they have an unfavourable cost structure which paralyses their competitiveness.“It is almost a chicken and eggs situation that for them to lower their cost of funding, they need to be deposit taking, that is through banking license, but it appears they need to capitalise a bit more to prepare for qualification as a deposit taking institution,” the committee member observed.
NDB has been sourcing its funds from BIFM Capital, Barclays Bank and First National Bank Botswana (FNBB) at an interest rate of 8.5 percent, and 9.5 percent for BIFM capital. This, according to the bank, is brought about by the verity that government has stopped issuing bonds to the bank, forcing it to find alternative funding avenues. It has merged that most of committee members are sympathetic to NDB and are determined to make a case in their favour before parliament.Parliament has the authority to authorise government spending and has in the past approved bailing out of several public enterprises which were struggling financially.
Though NDB was at one point making profit, it does not get subvention from government on annual basis despite the bank being a development bank. In 2016, NDB requested government to inject capital amounting to about P1 billion in the next three years in order to transform the bank and prepare it for commercialisation. Last year, it was offered P400 million by government, P100 million of it being a grant while the remaining P300 million was a loan.
As per Chief Executive Officer of the Bank, Lorato Morapedi’s statement before the parliamentary committee on Statutory Bodies and Enterprises in 2016, NDB wanted government to inject P400 million in the next financial year , followed by two government guaranteed loans of P165 million and P250 million in subsequent years.
NDB is one of the quasi-government institutions that have been put up for privatisation, with Botswana Telecommunication Corporation (BTC) having successfully gone through the process. It is expected that, like the BTC, government will retain 51 percent shareholding in the company, while 5 percent is offered to employees, with the rest of the shareholding being offered to the public.
However, there has been debate both within and outside NDB with regard to whether the bank is in a state to be commercialised. Some school of thought is that in its current state, government would be either giving it away or nobody will show interest in its stock, hence the need to recapitalise the bank.
As the preparations for the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) congress are about to kick off, reports on the ground suggest that the party’s Deputy Treasurer Jackdish Shah will not defend the position in August as he contemplates relocation.
According to sources, the businessman who joined the BDP Central Committee in 2015 at the 36th Congress held in Mmadinare is ready to leave the party’s politburo. It is said he long made up his mind not to defend the position last year. A prominent businessman, Shah, when he won the position to assist Satar Dada in 2015 was expected to improve the party’s financial vibrancy. By then the party was under the leadership of Ian Khama.
According to close sources, Shah long decided not to contest because he has fallen out of favour with the party leadership. It is said he took the decision after some prominent businessmen who are BDP members and part of football syndicate decided to push him out and they used their proximity to President Mokgweetsi Masisi to badmouth him hence the decision.
“The fight at the Botswana Football Association (BFA) and Botswana Football League (BFL) has left him alone in the desert and some faces there used their close access to the President to isolate him,” said a source. Media reports say, Shah does not see eye to eye with BFA President MacLean Letshwiti who is also Masisi’s buddy hence the decision.
BFL Chairman Nicholas Zackhem is said to be not in good terms with Shah, who at one point Chaired the then Botswana Premier League (BPL). “He is seriously considering quitting because of what is unfolding at the team (Township Rollers) which is slowly not making financial gains and might be relegated and he wants to sell while it is still worth the investment,” said a highly placed source.
Shah is a renowned businessman who runs internet providing company Zebra net, H &G, game farm in Kasane, cattle farm in Ghanzi region and lot of properties in Gaborone. He also has two hotels in USA, his advisors have given him thumbs up on the possible decision of relocating provided he does not sell some of the investments that are doing well.
Asked about whether he will be contesting Shah could not confirm nor deny the reports. It is said for now it is too early as a public decision will have to be taken after the national council meeting and prior to the national congress. “As a BDP Central Committee member he cannot make that announcement now,” a BDP source said.
BDP is expected to assemble for the National Council during the July holidays while the National Congress is billed for August. It is then that the party will elect a new CC members. The last time BDP held elective congress was at Kang in 2019. The party is yet to issue writ.
The government has failed to implement some commitments and agreements that it had entered into with unions to improve conditions of public servants.
Three years after the government and public made commitments aimed at improving conditions of work and services it has emerged that the government has ignored and failed to implement all commitments on conditions of service emanating from the 2019 round of negotiations.
In its position paper that saw public service salaries being increased by 5%, the government the government has also signalled its intention to renege on some of the commitments it had made. “Government aspires to look into all outstanding issues contained in the Labour Agreement signed between the Employer and recognised Trade Union on the 27th August 2019 and that it be reviewed, revised and delinked by both Parties with a view to agree on those whose implementation that can be realistically executed during the financial years 2022/23, 2023/24 and 2024/25 respectively,” the government said.
Furthermore, in addition to reviewing, revising and de-linking of the outstanding issues contained in the Collective Labour Agreement alluded to above and taking on a progressive proposal, government desires to review revise, develop and implement human resource policies as listed below during the financial year 2022/23,2023/24,2024/25
They include selection and appointment policy, learning and development policy, transfer guidelines, conditions of service, permanent and pensionable, temporary and part time, Foreign Service, expatriate and disciplinary procedures.
In their proposal paper, the unions which had proposed an 11 percent salary increase but eventually settled for 5% percent indicated that the government has not, and without explanation, acted on some of the key commitments from the 2019/2020 and 2021/22 round of negotiations. The essential elements of these commitments include among others the remuneration Policy for the Public Service.
The paper states that a Remuneration Policy will be developed to inform decision making on remuneration in the Public Service. It is envisaged that consultations between the government and relevant key stakeholders on the policy was to start on 1st September 2019, and the development of the policy should be concluded by 30th June 2020.
The public sector unions said the Remuneration Policy is yet to be developed. The Cooperating Unions suggested that the process should commence without delay and that it should be as participatory as it was originally conceived. Another agreement relate to Medical Aid Contribution for employees on salary Grades A and B.
The employer contribution towards medical aid for employees on salary Grades A and B will be increased from 50% to 80% for the Standard Option of the Botswana Public “Officers’ Medical Aid Scheme effective 1st October 2019; the cooperating unions insist that, in fulfilling this commitment, there should be no discrimination between those on the high benefit and those on the medium benefit plan,” the unions proposal paper says.
Another agreement involves the standardisation of gratuities across the Public Service. “Gratuities for all employees on fixed term contracts of 12 months but not exceeding 5 years, including former Industrial class employees be standardized at 30% across the Public Service in order to remove the existing inequalities and secure long-term financial security for Public Service Employees at lower grades with immediate effect,” the paper states.
The other agreement signed by the public sector unions and the government was the development of fan-shaped Salary Structure. The paper says the Public Service will adopt a best practice fan-shaped and overlapping structure, with modification to suit the Botswana context. The Parties (government and unions) to this agreement will jointly agree on the ranges of salary grades to allow for employees’ progression without a promotion to the available position on the next management level.
“The fan-shaped structure is envisaged to be in place by 1st June 2020, to enable factoring into the budgetary cycle for the financial year 2021/22,” the unions’ proposal paper states. It says the following steps are critical, capacity building of key stakeholders (September – December 2019), commission remuneration market survey (3 months from September to November 2019), design of the fan-shaped structure (2 to 3 months from January to March2020) and consultations with all key stakeholders (March to April 2020).
The unions and government had also signed an agreement on performance management and development: A rigorous performance management and reward system based on a 5-point rating system will be adopted as an integral part of the operationalization of the new Remuneration System.
Performance Management and Development (PMD) will be used to reward workers based on performance. The review of the Performance Management System was to be undertaken in order to close the gaps identified by PEMANDU and other previous reports on PMS between 1st September 2019 and 30th June 2020 as follows; internal process to update and revise the current Performance Management System by January 2020.
A job evaluation exercise in the Public Service will also be undertaken to among others establish internal equity, and will also cover the grading of all supervisory positions within the Public Service. Another agreement included overtime Management. The Directorate of Public Service Management (DPSM) was to facilitate the conclusion of consultations on management of overtime, including consideration of the Overtime Management Task Team’s report on the same by 30th November 2019.
A public health expert, Dr Edward Maganu who is also the former Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Health has said that unlike many who are expressing shock at the population census growth decline results, he is not, because the 2022 results represents his expectations.
He rushed to dismiss the position by Statistics Botswana in which thy partly attributes the low growth rates to mortality rates for the past ten years. “I don’t think there is any undercounting. I also don’t think death rates have much to do with it since the excessive deaths from HIV/AIDS have been controlled by ARVs and our life expectancy isn’t lower than it was in the 1990s,” he said in an interview with this publication post the release of the results.
Preliminary results released by Statistics Botswana this week indicated that Botswana’s population is now estimated to be 2,346,179 – a figure that the state owned data agency expressed worry over saying it’s below their projected growth. The general decline in the population growth rate is attributed to ‘fertility’ and ‘mortality’ rates that the country registered on the past ten years since the last census in 2011.
Maganu explained that with an enlightened or educated society and the country’s total fertility rate, there was no way the country’s population census was going to match the previous growth rates. “The results of the census make sense and is exactly what I expected. Our Total Fertility Rate ( the average number of children born to a woman) is now around 2.
This is what happens as society develops and educates its women. The enlightened women don’t want to bear many children, they want to work and earn a living, have free time, and give their few children good care. So, there is no under- counting. Census procedures are standard so that results are comparable between countries.
That is why the UN is involved through UNFPA, the UN Agency responsible for population matters,” said Maganu who is also the former adviser to the World Health Organisation. Maganu ruled out undercounting concerns, “I see a lot of Batswana are worried about the census results. Above is what I have always stated.”
Given the disadvantages that accompany low population for countries, some have suggested that perhaps a time has come for the government to consider population growth policies or incentives, suggestions Maganu deems ineffective.
“It has never worked anywhere. The number of children born to a woman are a very private decision of the woman and the husband in an enlightened society. And as I indicated, the more the women of a society get educated, the higher the tendency to have fewer children. All developed countries have a problem of zero population growth or even negative growth.
The replacement level is regarded as 2 children per woman; once the fertility level falls below that, then the population stops growing. That’s why developed countries are depending so much on immigration,” he said.
According to him, a lot of developing countries that are educating their women are heading there, including ourselves-Botswana. “Countries that have had a policy of encouraging women to have more children have failed dismally. A good example is some countries of Eastern Europe (Romania is a good example) that wanted to grow their populations by rewarding women who had more children. It didn’t work. The number of children is a very private matter,” said Maganu
For those who may be worried about the impact of problems associated with low growth rate, Maganu said: “The challenge is to develop society so that it can take care of its dependency ratio, the children and the aged. In developed countries the ratio of people over 60 years is now more than 20%, ours is still less than 10%.”
The preliminary results show that Mogoditshane with (88,098) is now the biggest village in the country with Maun coming second (85,293) and Molepolole at third position with 74,719. Population growth is associated with many economic advantages because more people leads to greater human capital, higher economic growth, economies of scale, the efficiency of higher population density and the improved demographic structure of society, among many others.