One in four students at universities in Botswana is likely to report childhood sexual abuse, a study by the University of Botswana suggests. A study of 362 students enrolled at the University of Botswana found that 25% of them experienced childhood sexual abuse. About 23% of the students who reported childhood sexual abuse were male and 77% were females. The study linked childhood sexual abuse to harmful alcohol use, severe depression, failure to use contraceptives during sexual encounters, early sexual debut, and having multiple concurrent sexual partners.
The study, published in South African Journal of Psychology, and authored by a student, Ms Onalenna Phillip and her supervisor Prof Kennedy Amone-P’Olak, found significant differences between those who reported childhood sexual abuse and those with no history of sexual abuse on several mental health and behavioural outcomes. For example, about 36% of those who reported childhood sexual abuse initiated sexual activities before the age of 16 compared to 15% for those who did not report childhood sexual abuse.
Among those who reported childhood sexual abuse, 46% use contraceptives intermittently or not at all, 48% engaged in sex with multiple concurrent partners, 31% used alcohol hazardously, and 28% had severe depressive symptoms compared to 17%, 16%, 12%, and 13% of those who did not report childhood sexual abuse, respectively. The study demonstrates that childhood sexual abuse is widespread and common among every echelon of society including those in high socio-economic stratum as indicated in the socio-economic background of the students.
A confluence of family environmental factors that make children vulnerable to sexual abuse are discussed in the study. Among these factors are family conflicts, family dysfunction, domestic violence, drug and substance abuse, intergeneration sex for monetary gains, and traditional beliefs that young girls are free from sexually transmitted diseases. All these factors are common in Botswana and are known to put children in vulnerable situations in which they can be sexually abused.
For instance, girls raised by single mothers can be abused by their stepfathers, mothers’ boyfriends or relatives. Similarly, the traditional beliefs that older men can rejuvenate their sex lives by sleeping with young girls make girls, in particular, vulnerable to childhood sexual abuse.
The study recommends that government should adopt an integral approach that accounts for the efforts of multiple sectors as well as policies that reach greater levels of child protection and the protection of survivors of childhood sexual abuse in the country. Furthermore, universities and other institutions of higher learning focus on developing interventions to treat survivors with the view to reduce the negative and potentially toxic emotional and behavioural consequences of childhood sexual abuse.
For example, the study called for improved access to mental health services for survivors but hasten to add that, although counselling services are available on many university campuses, numerous barriers still exist that make it difficult for survivors to access services. Such barriers include lack of awareness, the location of the services, poor attitudes towards counselling, and stigma surrounding sex and mental illness. These barriers can be reduced by creating awareness, improving attitudes through education, and introducing anti-stigma campaigns to increase uptake of services for survivors of childhood sexual abuse.
As a response to avert vulture poisoning currently going on in Botswana and KAZA region, Birdlife Botswana has collaborated with three other partners (BirdWatch Zambia, BirdLife International & Birdlife Zimbabwe) to tackle wildlife poisoning which by extension negatively affect vulture populations.
The Director of Birdlife Botswana, Motshereganyi Virat Kootshositse has revealed in an interview that the project which is funded by European Union’s main goal is to reduce poisoning related vultures’ death and consequently other wildlife species death within the KAZA region.
He highlighted that Chobe district in Botswana has been selected as a pilot site as it has experienced rampant incidents of vulture poisoning for the past few months. In August this year at least 50 endangered white backed vultures were reported dead at Chobe National Park, Botswana after feeding on a buffalo carcass laced with poison. In November this year again 43 white backed vultures were found dead and two alive after feeding on a zebra suspected to have poisoned. Other selected pilots’ sites are Kafue in Zambia and Hwange in Zimbabwe.
Kootshositse further explained they have established a national and regional Wildlife Poisoning Committee. He added that as for the national committee they have engaged various departments such as Crop Productions, Agro Chemicals, Department of Veterinary Services, Department of Wildlife and National Parks and other NGOs such as Raptors Botswana to come together and find a long-lasting solution to address wildlife poisoning in Botswana. ‘Let’s have a strategy or a plan together to tackle wildlife poisoning,’ he stated
He also decried that there is gap in the availability of data about vulture poisoning or wildlife in general. ‘If we have a central point for data, it will help in terms of reporting and advocacy’, he stated
He added that the regional committee comprises of law enforcement officers such as BDF and Botswana police, village leadership such as Village Development Committee and Kgosi. ‘We need to join hand together and protect the wildlife we have as this will increase our profile for conservation and this alone enhances our visitation and boost our local economy,’ he noted
Kootshositse noted that Birdlife together with DWNP also addressed series of meeting in some villages in the Chobe region recently. The purpose of kgotla meetings was to raise awareness on the conservation and protection of vultures in Chobe West communities.
‘After realizing that vulture poisoning in the Chobe areas become frequent, we realise that we need to do something about it. ‘We did a public awareness by addressing several kgotla meetings in some villages in the Chobe west,’ he stated
He noted that next year they are going to have another round of consultations around the Chobe areas and the approach is to engage the community into planning process. ‘Residents should be part of the plan of actions and we are working with farmers committee in the areas to address vulture poisoning in the area, ‘he added
He added that they have found out that some common reasons for poisoning wildlife are farmers targeting predators such as lions in retaliation to killing of their livestock. Another common incident cross border poaching in the Chobe area as poachers will kills an elephant and poison its carcass targeting vultures because of their aerial circling alerting authorities about poaching activities.
Kootshositse noted that in the last cases it was disheartening the incidents occurred three months apart. He added that for the first time they found that some of the body parts of some vultures were missing. He added harvesting of body parts of vultures is not a common practice in Botswana, although it is used in some parts of Africa. ‘We suspect that someone took advantage of the availability of carcasses and started harvesting their body parts,’
The music industry is at a point where artists are jostling for space because there are so many aspirants trying to get their big break, thus creating stiff competition.
In the music business it’s about talent and positioning. You need to be at the right place at the right time with the right people around you to propel you forward.
Against all odds, Everton Mlalazi has managed to takeover the gospel scene effortlessly.
To him, it’s more than just a breakthrough to stardom, but a passion as well as mission directly appointed by the Lord.
Within a short space of 2 years after having decided to persue a solo career, Mlalazi has already made it into international music scene, with his music receiving considerable play on several gospel television and radio stations in Botswana including other regional stations like Trace Africa, One Gospel, Metro FM in South Africa, Hope FM in Kenya and literally all broadcast stations in Zimbabwe.
It doesn’t only stop there, as the musician has already been nominated 2 times and 2 awards which are Bulawayo Arts Awards (BAA) best Male artists 2022, StarFM listerners Choice Award, Best Newcomer 2021 and ZIMA Best Contemporary Gospel 2022, MLA awards Best Male artist & Best Gospel Artist 2022.
Everton’s inspiration stems from his ultimate passion and desire to lead people into Godly ways and it seems it’s only getting started.
The man is a gospel artist to put on your radar.
Minister of Health Dr Edwin Dikoloti says Africa member states call on World Health Organization (WHO) to ensure equitable resource allocation for 2024-2025. Dr Dikoloti was speaking this week at the WHO Executive Board Meeting in Geneva, Switzerland.
He said countries agreed that there is need to address the budget and funding imbalances by increasing the programme budget share of countries and regions to 75% for the next year.
“The proposed budget for 2024-2025 marks an important milestone as it is the first in Programme Budget in which country offices will be allocated more than half of the total budget for the biennium. We highly welcome this approach which will enable the organization to deliver on its mandate while fulfilling the expectations for transparency, efficiency and accountability.”
The Botswana Health Minister commended member states on the extension of the General Programme of Work (GPD 13) and the Secretariat work to monitor the progress towards the triple billion targets, and the health-related SDGs.
“We welcome the Director’s general proposed five priorities which have crystalized into the “five Ps” that are aligned with the GPW 13 extension. Impact can only be achieved through close coordination with, and support to national health authorities. As such, the strengthening of country offices is instrumental, with particular focus on strengthening national health systems and on promoting more equitable access to health services.”
According to Dr Dikoloti, the majority of countries with UHC index that is below the global median are in the WHO Africa region. “For that, we call on the WHO to enhance capacity at the regional and national levels in order to accelerate progress. Currently, the regional office needs both technical and financial support in order to effectively address and support country needs.”