Multitudes of Bayeyi tribesmen who thronged Gumare main Kgotla last Sunday to celebrate their annual Wayeyi culture festival were left in disappointment after being told that despite recent recognition by Government, they are not yet entitled to paramount chief representation in the Ntlo Ya Dikgosi.
The government through Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD) in 2016 resolved to recognise the Bayeyi as an independent ethnic group. With that respect, there was optimism within the tribe—anticipating a new page that would corroborate their sovereignty with having their own Kgosi Kgolo. For a long time Bayeyi have been taken as Batawana subjects something the tribe vehemently challenged until government acceded to their demand.
Bayeyi’s main contention for recognition was based on two things; being first inhabitants in the area, and having more population. One of the Bayeyi Chieftainship Council delegate who have been negotiating with government on the matter, is Gilson Saleshando, former Member of Parliament and former leader of the Botswana Congress Party (BCP).
Saleshando told this publication in an interview that Vice President Slumber Tsogwane informed them that they are still a minority tribe and therefore there will not have a paramount chief and representation in the Ntlo Ya Dikgosi. “We as the delegation of Bayeyi met with him (Tsogwane) at Maun Lodge sometimes back and he told us that we are still moratshwana. He even said a white t-shirt is not as the same as a red t-shirt. With that, he said we can only be recognised but we will not have a Kgosi Kgolo. He says this is because we fall under Batawana territory therefore we are their subjects,” said Saleshando one of the long-time Wayeyi ‘freedom fighters’.
He continued; “We communicated this to Bayeyi over the weekend during our annual culture celebrations where Tsogwane was present. But he failed to present or corroborate what he told us in our meeting though I pleaded with him to repeat what he said in front of Bayeyi. He declined and instead attacked me for not tabling any motion about it during my tenure as an MP. He only told morafe that our chieftainship should be hereditary for smooth succession.”
While most of the tribesmen came to celebrate their culture with anticipated good news from Tsogwane as a cherry on top, they were left devastated by the revelation. “People were very hurt, the mood was sombre. They never expected that but it shows that our constitution promotes marginalisation,” Saleshando stated. The development is being viewed as inferring that government’s decision to recognise the tribe in 2016 was just a ceremonial occurrence and will not come with anything tangible the tribe hoped for.
“Under Bogosi Act we are Morafe since we are recognised but under the country’s constitution we are Moratshwana because we cannot contribute meaningfully to what is happening like the other eight tribes. This now means that recognition was just a ceremonial and rhetoric occurrence. We are not going to enjoy any basics a recognized tribe does,” he said. The main reason Bayeyi demanded to be recognised and have a paramount chief was for them to enjoy linguistic and cultural rights not enjoyed by the non-recognised tribes.
“Among these are access to the institution of Bogosi, permanent membership to Ntlo ya Dikgosi as our right, group rights to land, territorial and ethnic identity, a celebration of one’s culture in the public domain and the use of one’s language in education and the media,” another delegate Gceba Ditando has said. Saleshando believes the current problems are caused by the constitution due to the manner in which it was framed.
“This unjust law to have minor and major tribes is due to the constitution and not Batawana. Our rivalry with them dates back to time immemorial but they are not at fault. The constitution needs to be amended. This was even suggested by the judgement in 2001 when we demanded the same and judges told us that parliament can change laws not them. So for now I believe our constitution has been overtaken by events,” a very emotional Saleshando said.
Bayei tribe has three royal families from which the chief has to be chosen. Those royal families include Bogosi Jwa ga Mathwara, Bogosi Jwa ga Hankuzi and Bogosi Jwa ga Xonkue. The Bayei chieftaincy was left vacant following the demise of Chief Shikati Calvin Kamanakao in 2003. After years of struggle the Wayeyi Chieftainship Council and morafe agreed that Chief Fish Ozoo be their representative who unfortunately passed on before being crowned.
The latest name was Pitoro Jacob Seedisa who could have long been installed at least by the 4th of December in 2017 but was blocked by Batawana tribal leadership. He was appointed the leader last Sunday. All these failures to coronate a chief especially in 2017 when it was given a go ahead by the then Minister of Local Government, Tsogwane, had Batawana regent Kealetile Moremi blocking everything saying it is inconsequential for Bayeyi to have own Chief as they are under Batawana.
In 2017 a scheduled Bayeyi chief coronation failed after Batawana regent, Kealetile Moremi opposed it. It is said after the argument government decided reached a conclusion that Bayeyi not could have their own paramount chief. It is believed that government feared that giving BaYeyi full recognition would have various negative implication such as being saddled with the task of creating new boundaries as BaYeyi wanted to have its own territorial integrity.
Now their independence is pie in the sky. For now there are about 37 other tribes which exist in Botswana, which are not recognised by the state. The total non-Tswana population is generally estimated at about 60 per cent. Experts say lack of recognition has also led to the inadequate provision of social services, such as education, in rural and minority dominated areas, 36 resulting in disproportionately high levels of poverty.
In 1885, the then-Bechuanaland became a British protectorate and in 1933, the British authorities recognized eight tribes in the Chieftainship Act as follows: the Barolong, Bakwena, Bangwaketse, Balete, Bakgatla, Batlokwa, Bangwato and Batawana.
As the preparations for the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) congress are about to kick off, reports on the ground suggest that the party’s Deputy Treasurer Jackdish Shah will not defend the position in August as he contemplates relocation.
According to sources, the businessman who joined the BDP Central Committee in 2015 at the 36th Congress held in Mmadinare is ready to leave the party’s politburo. It is said he long made up his mind not to defend the position last year. A prominent businessman, Shah, when he won the position to assist Satar Dada in 2015 was expected to improve the party’s financial vibrancy. By then the party was under the leadership of Ian Khama.
According to close sources, Shah long decided not to contest because he has fallen out of favour with the party leadership. It is said he took the decision after some prominent businessmen who are BDP members and part of football syndicate decided to push him out and they used their proximity to President Mokgweetsi Masisi to badmouth him hence the decision.
“The fight at the Botswana Football Association (BFA) and Botswana Football League (BFL) has left him alone in the desert and some faces there used their close access to the President to isolate him,” said a source. Media reports say, Shah does not see eye to eye with BFA President MacLean Letshwiti who is also Masisi’s buddy hence the decision.
BFL Chairman Nicholas Zackhem is said to be not in good terms with Shah, who at one point Chaired the then Botswana Premier League (BPL). “He is seriously considering quitting because of what is unfolding at the team (Township Rollers) which is slowly not making financial gains and might be relegated and he wants to sell while it is still worth the investment,” said a highly placed source.
Shah is a renowned businessman who runs internet providing company Zebra net, H &G, game farm in Kasane, cattle farm in Ghanzi region and lot of properties in Gaborone. He also has two hotels in USA, his advisors have given him thumbs up on the possible decision of relocating provided he does not sell some of the investments that are doing well.
Asked about whether he will be contesting Shah could not confirm nor deny the reports. It is said for now it is too early as a public decision will have to be taken after the national council meeting and prior to the national congress. “As a BDP Central Committee member he cannot make that announcement now,” a BDP source said.
BDP is expected to assemble for the National Council during the July holidays while the National Congress is billed for August. It is then that the party will elect a new CC members. The last time BDP held elective congress was at Kang in 2019. The party is yet to issue writ.
The government has failed to implement some commitments and agreements that it had entered into with unions to improve conditions of public servants.
Three years after the government and public made commitments aimed at improving conditions of work and services it has emerged that the government has ignored and failed to implement all commitments on conditions of service emanating from the 2019 round of negotiations.
In its position paper that saw public service salaries being increased by 5%, the government the government has also signalled its intention to renege on some of the commitments it had made. “Government aspires to look into all outstanding issues contained in the Labour Agreement signed between the Employer and recognised Trade Union on the 27th August 2019 and that it be reviewed, revised and delinked by both Parties with a view to agree on those whose implementation that can be realistically executed during the financial years 2022/23, 2023/24 and 2024/25 respectively,” the government said.
Furthermore, in addition to reviewing, revising and de-linking of the outstanding issues contained in the Collective Labour Agreement alluded to above and taking on a progressive proposal, government desires to review revise, develop and implement human resource policies as listed below during the financial year 2022/23,2023/24,2024/25
They include selection and appointment policy, learning and development policy, transfer guidelines, conditions of service, permanent and pensionable, temporary and part time, Foreign Service, expatriate and disciplinary procedures.
In their proposal paper, the unions which had proposed an 11 percent salary increase but eventually settled for 5% percent indicated that the government has not, and without explanation, acted on some of the key commitments from the 2019/2020 and 2021/22 round of negotiations. The essential elements of these commitments include among others the remuneration Policy for the Public Service.
The paper states that a Remuneration Policy will be developed to inform decision making on remuneration in the Public Service. It is envisaged that consultations between the government and relevant key stakeholders on the policy was to start on 1st September 2019, and the development of the policy should be concluded by 30th June 2020.
The public sector unions said the Remuneration Policy is yet to be developed. The Cooperating Unions suggested that the process should commence without delay and that it should be as participatory as it was originally conceived. Another agreement relate to Medical Aid Contribution for employees on salary Grades A and B.
The employer contribution towards medical aid for employees on salary Grades A and B will be increased from 50% to 80% for the Standard Option of the Botswana Public “Officers’ Medical Aid Scheme effective 1st October 2019; the cooperating unions insist that, in fulfilling this commitment, there should be no discrimination between those on the high benefit and those on the medium benefit plan,” the unions proposal paper says.
Another agreement involves the standardisation of gratuities across the Public Service. “Gratuities for all employees on fixed term contracts of 12 months but not exceeding 5 years, including former Industrial class employees be standardized at 30% across the Public Service in order to remove the existing inequalities and secure long-term financial security for Public Service Employees at lower grades with immediate effect,” the paper states.
The other agreement signed by the public sector unions and the government was the development of fan-shaped Salary Structure. The paper says the Public Service will adopt a best practice fan-shaped and overlapping structure, with modification to suit the Botswana context. The Parties (government and unions) to this agreement will jointly agree on the ranges of salary grades to allow for employees’ progression without a promotion to the available position on the next management level.
“The fan-shaped structure is envisaged to be in place by 1st June 2020, to enable factoring into the budgetary cycle for the financial year 2021/22,” the unions’ proposal paper states. It says the following steps are critical, capacity building of key stakeholders (September – December 2019), commission remuneration market survey (3 months from September to November 2019), design of the fan-shaped structure (2 to 3 months from January to March2020) and consultations with all key stakeholders (March to April 2020).
The unions and government had also signed an agreement on performance management and development: A rigorous performance management and reward system based on a 5-point rating system will be adopted as an integral part of the operationalization of the new Remuneration System.
Performance Management and Development (PMD) will be used to reward workers based on performance. The review of the Performance Management System was to be undertaken in order to close the gaps identified by PEMANDU and other previous reports on PMS between 1st September 2019 and 30th June 2020 as follows; internal process to update and revise the current Performance Management System by January 2020.
A job evaluation exercise in the Public Service will also be undertaken to among others establish internal equity, and will also cover the grading of all supervisory positions within the Public Service. Another agreement included overtime Management. The Directorate of Public Service Management (DPSM) was to facilitate the conclusion of consultations on management of overtime, including consideration of the Overtime Management Task Team’s report on the same by 30th November 2019.
A public health expert, Dr Edward Maganu who is also the former Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Health has said that unlike many who are expressing shock at the population census growth decline results, he is not, because the 2022 results represents his expectations.
He rushed to dismiss the position by Statistics Botswana in which thy partly attributes the low growth rates to mortality rates for the past ten years. “I don’t think there is any undercounting. I also don’t think death rates have much to do with it since the excessive deaths from HIV/AIDS have been controlled by ARVs and our life expectancy isn’t lower than it was in the 1990s,” he said in an interview with this publication post the release of the results.
Preliminary results released by Statistics Botswana this week indicated that Botswana’s population is now estimated to be 2,346,179 – a figure that the state owned data agency expressed worry over saying it’s below their projected growth. The general decline in the population growth rate is attributed to ‘fertility’ and ‘mortality’ rates that the country registered on the past ten years since the last census in 2011.
Maganu explained that with an enlightened or educated society and the country’s total fertility rate, there was no way the country’s population census was going to match the previous growth rates. “The results of the census make sense and is exactly what I expected. Our Total Fertility Rate ( the average number of children born to a woman) is now around 2.
This is what happens as society develops and educates its women. The enlightened women don’t want to bear many children, they want to work and earn a living, have free time, and give their few children good care. So, there is no under- counting. Census procedures are standard so that results are comparable between countries.
That is why the UN is involved through UNFPA, the UN Agency responsible for population matters,” said Maganu who is also the former adviser to the World Health Organisation. Maganu ruled out undercounting concerns, “I see a lot of Batswana are worried about the census results. Above is what I have always stated.”
Given the disadvantages that accompany low population for countries, some have suggested that perhaps a time has come for the government to consider population growth policies or incentives, suggestions Maganu deems ineffective.
“It has never worked anywhere. The number of children born to a woman are a very private decision of the woman and the husband in an enlightened society. And as I indicated, the more the women of a society get educated, the higher the tendency to have fewer children. All developed countries have a problem of zero population growth or even negative growth.
The replacement level is regarded as 2 children per woman; once the fertility level falls below that, then the population stops growing. That’s why developed countries are depending so much on immigration,” he said.
According to him, a lot of developing countries that are educating their women are heading there, including ourselves-Botswana. “Countries that have had a policy of encouraging women to have more children have failed dismally. A good example is some countries of Eastern Europe (Romania is a good example) that wanted to grow their populations by rewarding women who had more children. It didn’t work. The number of children is a very private matter,” said Maganu
For those who may be worried about the impact of problems associated with low growth rate, Maganu said: “The challenge is to develop society so that it can take care of its dependency ratio, the children and the aged. In developed countries the ratio of people over 60 years is now more than 20%, ours is still less than 10%.”
The preliminary results show that Mogoditshane with (88,098) is now the biggest village in the country with Maun coming second (85,293) and Molepolole at third position with 74,719. Population growth is associated with many economic advantages because more people leads to greater human capital, higher economic growth, economies of scale, the efficiency of higher population density and the improved demographic structure of society, among many others.