A study released this week shows that Batswana youths and women top the unemployment statistics in Botswana. The general unemployment rate currently stands at 17%. The findings indicate that in terms of gender, being male as opposed to female increases the probability for employment relative to unemployment.
The study, which is titled “determinants of Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions of the Youth in Botswana” was conducted by the University of Botswana (UB) renowned academics Professor Happy Siphambe in collaboration with Dr. Malebogo Bakwena, Dr. Lexi Setlhare and few other scholars at the highest institution of learning.
The research paper further states that the youth population also tends to experience higher unemployment rates than the older population. Youth in the study were categorised, as most programmes in Botswana define youth, between the ages of 15 to 39 years. “Since young people generally have no workplace experience, which makes it difficult for them to obtain jobs,” the academics pointed out in which Gabane was used as a case study.
Thus, according to the study, younger youth are also likely than older youth to become unemployed and to be discouraged. It states that high youth unemployment rate is also a result of the high school dropout in the country. Study states that in the years 2012-2014, a total of 8,051 students even dropped out from secondary school, in which a whopping 5,031 were females. “The probability of Job losses were lower for individuals with secondary education than those with primary education,” highlights the research paper.
In Botswana, Statistics Botswana of 2016 also indicate that youth unemployment is currently estimated at 25.2% with female unemployment higher than that of males at 26.9% percent as compared to 23.6% percent for males. The new research paper fills the gap which was left by many studies that were carried out on youth unemployment and on unemployment in general in Botswana which did not examine the gross transitions and the transitions determined by individual socio-economic characteristics.
Study emphasised that “the transition probabilities from employment to unemployment for women was higher than for males at 10.2 percent and 10.8 percent respectively between the two time periods.” The transition from unemployment to employment was 17.2 and 17.9 percent respectively between the two time periods. It says the probabilities of moving out of labor force to employment increased from 2.8 percent to 3.1 percent during the study period.
“Compared to males, the labor patterns for females also show higher rates of losing employment and less opportunities of finding employment during the entire study period,” the study stressed. Moreover study explains that “the transition probabilities of EU are higher for the 15-24 age group than for 25-34 group for both periods. This may be indicative of that the older group has more education & training and/or experience to move.”
It is not clear whether it is mere chance or employers prefer older more experienced workers over younger inexperience workers, it says while adding that one could guess that these are mature people who could be having family responsibilities and could not afford to choose jobs. Economic theory explains how the aggregates of employment and unemployment are determined by the business cycle of the economy, the researchers say.
They point out that the aggregate unemployment rate may also be influenced by worker flows between different labour market states of employment, unemployment and out-of-labour market. Thus, study highlights that it is important to analyse transitions of workers among labour market states for many reasons. “One reason is that while aggregate unemployment may be due to lack of job expansions in the economy, some of the unemployment arise due to job mobility,” UB academics say.
The new study will contribute to existing literature because the researchers claim that there is no literature on labour market transitions in Botswana. Majority of the studies that employed duration models attempted to estimate the duration of unemployment, conditional on individual personal characteristics and labor market conditions experienced by individuals. While the labour market transitions of the labour force are important in explaining unemployment, the study states that the socio-economic characteristics of individuals also play an important role.
“These individual characteristics influence the flows of people into different labour market positions, which can be measured by probabilities of losing jobs and probabilities of finding new jobs,” study further says. Botswana has its share of youth unemployment which remains a global concern and most countries continue to experience increased youth unemployment and this is particularly so for African economies, most of which are currently struggling to address the problem.
According to International Labour Organisation (ILO), given the sustained upward trend in global unemployment, which has hit the youths so hard, it is likely that many of them will continue to be almost three times unemployed than the adult population, hence the need to conduct youth unemployment studies.
Despite being hailed and still regarded as a hero who saved many lives through his decision to crash the BF5 fighter Jet around the national stadium on the eve of the 2018 BDF day, the deceased Pilot, Major Clifford Manyuni’s actions were treated as a letdown within the army, especially by his master-Commander of the Air Arm, Major General Innocent Phatshwane.
Manyuni’s master says he was utterly disappointed with his Pilot’s failure to perform “simple basics.”
Manyuni was regarded as a hero through social media for his ‘colourful exploits’, but Phatshwane who recently retired as the Air Arm Commander, revealed to WeekendPost in an exclusive interview that while he appreciated Batswana’s outpouring of emotions and love towards his departed Pilot, he strongly felt let down by the Pilot “because there was nothing wrong with that Fighter Jet and Manyuni did not report any problem either.”
The deceased Pilot, Manyuni was known within the army to be an upwardly mobile aviator and in particular an air power proponent.
“I was hurt and very disappointed because nobody knows why he decided to crash a well-functioning aircraft,” stated Phatshwane – a veteran pilot with over 40 years of experience under the Air Arm unit.
Phatshwane went on to express shock at Manyuni’s flagrant disregard for the rules of the game, “they were in a formation if you recall well and the guiding principle in that set-up is that if you have any problem, you immediately report to the formation team leader and signal a break-away from the formation.
Manyuni disregarded all these basic rules, not even to report to anybody-team members or even the barracks,” revealed Phatshwane when engaged on the much-publicised 2018 incident that took the life of a Rakops-born Pilot of BDF Class 27 of 2003/2004.
Phatshwane quickly dismisses the suggestion that perhaps the Fighter Jet could have been faulty, “the reasons why I am saying I was disappointed is that the aircraft was also in good condition and well-functioning. It was in our best interest to know what could have caused the accident and we launched a wholesale post-accident investigation which revealed that everything in the structure was working perfectly well,” he stated.
Phatshwane continued: “we thoroughly assessed the condition of the engine of the aircraft as well as the safety measures-especially the ejection seat which is the Pilot’s best safety companion under any life-threatening situation. All were perfectly functional.”
In aircrafts, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft in an emergency. The seat is propelled out of the aircraft by an explosive charge or rocket motor, carrying the pilot with it.”
Manyuni knew about all these safety measures and had checked their functionality prior to using the Aircraft as is routine practice, according to Phatshwane. Could Manyuni have been going through emotional distress of some sort? Phatshwane says while he may never really know about that, what he can say is that there are laid out procedures in aviation guiding instances of emotional instability which Manyuni also knew about.
“We don’t allow or condone emotionally or physically unfit Pilots to take charge of an aircraft. If a Pilot feels unfit, he reports and requests to be excused. We will subsequently shift the task to another Pilot. We do this because we know the risks of leaving an unfit pilot to fly an aircraft,” says Phatshwane.
Despite having happened a day before the BDF day, Phatshwane says the BDF day mishap did not really affect the BDF day preparations, although it emotionally distracted Manyuni’s flying formation squad a bit, having seen him break away from the formation to the stone-hearted ground. The team soldiered on and immediately reported back to base for advice and way forward, according to Phatshwane.
Sharing the details of the ordeal and his Pilots’ experiences, Phatshwane said: “they (pilots) were in distress, who wouldn’t? They were especially hurt by the deceased‘s lack of communication. I immediately called a chaplain to attend to their emotional needs.
He came and offered them counselling. But soldiers don’t cry, they immediately accepted that a warrior has been called, wiped off their tears and instantly reported back for duty. I am sure you saw them performing miracles the following day at the BDF day as arranged.”
Despite the matter having attracted wide publicity, the BDF kept the crash details a distance away from the public, a move that Phatshwane felt was not in the best interest of the army and public.
“The incident attracted overwhelming public attention. Not only that, there were some misconceptions attached to the incident and I thought it was upon the BDF to come out and address those for the benefit of the public and army’s reputation,” he said.
One disturbing narrative linked to the incident was that Manyuni heroically wrestled the ‘faulty’ aircraft away from the endangered public to die alone, a narrative which Phatshwane disputes as just people’s imaginations. “Like I said the Aircraft was functioning perfectly,” he responded.
A close family member has hinted that the traumatised Manyuni family, at the time of their son’s tragedy, strongly accused the BDF ‘of killing their son’. Phatshwane admits to this development, emphasising that “Manyuni’s mother was visibly and understandably in inconsolable pain when she uttered those words”.
Phatshwane was the one who had to travel to Rakops through the Directorate of Intelligence Services (DIS) aircraft to deliver the sad news to the family but says he found the family already in the know, through social media. At the time of his death, Manyuni was survived by both parents, two brothers, a sister, fiancée and one child. He was buried in Rakops in an emotionally-charged burial. Like his remains, the BDF fighter jets have been permanently rested.
A matter in which former President Lt Gen Ian Khama had brought before Broadhurst Police Station in Gaborone, requesting the State to charge Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC) lead investigator, Jako Hubona and others with perjury has been committed to Headquarters because it involves “elders.”
Broadhurst Police Station Commander, Obusitswe Lokae, told this publication this week that the case in its nature is high profile so the matter has been allocated to his Officer Commanding No.3 District who then reported to the Divisional Commander who then sort to commit it to Police Headquarters.