African Development Bank’s Country Strategy Paper (CSP) 2015-2019 says Botswana is at a critical juncture in its development. CSP indicated that this has led to a rethinking of the country’s development strategy, saying that Botswana needs to accelerate economic transformation from the primary sector to advanced manufacturing and services in order to reduce its vulnerability to shock in the diamond trade.
The global financial crisis of 2009 exposed the country’s vulnerability to external shocks due to its reliance on one commodity. Real Gross Domestic Product contracted by 7.8 percent from an annual average growth of 10 percent experienced over the previous four decades. In addition, Botswana’s economy will face a difficult challenge in the medium term with the depletion of its diamond resources.
‘’The country needs to revive the growth of private sector investments and increase the productivity of economic investments. To achieve this, the government needs to invest in high impact infrastructure to improve competitiveness, provide a sound regulatory environment that is friendly to business, and further enhance skills development,’’ reads CSP.
Further, it noted that Botswana has made huge strides socioeconomic development over the past four decades, transforming itself from an underdeveloped country into a middle-income economy. However, a striking feature of the Botswana economy is the rather limited economic transformation.
“The structure of production has changed very little since the 1990s, minerals still dominate the economy, while labor-intensive manufacturing, which normally absorbs unskilled laborers who exit traditional agriculture, has not developed. As a result, the economy has high levels of unemployment and inequality. The 2009 global economic downturn exposed the country’s vulnerability to external shocks due to reliance in one commodity. At the same time, growth in the non-mining sector softened.”
To reduce unemployment and inequality, CSP notes that the country will need to accelerate growth of private sector investments and increase the productivity of economic investments. The CSP, which is anchored on the Bank’s ten-year strategy responds to the need to transform the Botswana economy in accordance with its national development agenda, outlined in the government’s 10th National Development Plan NDP10 covering the period 2009-2016.
The CSP is aligned with the priorities of the NDP10 that intersect with those of the ten-year strategy and focuses on the Bank’s core areas of competence. It is organized around two strategic and complementary pillars, infrastructure development to increase productivity and private sector development. The CSP calls for increased productivity and achieving high, inclusive and sustainable growth in Botswana, which is the shared goal of the ten-year strategy and the NDP10.
CSP continued to note that the structure of production of the Botswana economy has changed very little since the 1990s. The Strategy paper says the economic base remains narrow and the economy is still dominated by mining and government. The mining sector constitutes between 30 and 35 percent of the gross domestic product and government contributes around 16 percent of the GDP. These percentages have not changed significantly over the last decade.
The fastest growing sector has been services and its overall contribution to GDP has increased mainly due to the slowdown in mining as a result of the global economic slowdown. Within the sector, the fastest growing subsectors such as government services, banking, insurance and construction are al linked to revenue from the mining sector.
It also stated that agriculture, especially cattle farming is the dominant source of livelihood, saying more than half of Botswana’s population live in rural areas and are dependent on subsistence farming. However, domestic agriculture production meets only a small proportion of the nation’s food needs. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the GDP has continued to decline and is now under2.5 percent from a peak of 3.4 percent in the 1990s. The limited contribution of agriculture to GDP is mainly due to the severe water shortage and inadequate rain.
The share of the manufacturing sector in GDP has remained limited in the range of 5 to 6 percent since the 1990s. Unlike in many MICs, non-mining manufacturing has not been a dynamic absorber of labor. Rather, its share in GDP has been declining. Some attempts were made in the past to boost the textile industry and take advantage of access to the US market under the African Growth and Opportunity AGOA, but this has now become difficult due to strong competition from other developing countries.
Furthermore, CSP highlighted that Botswana continues to rank low with regard to important determinants of private investment. It says non-price competitiveness indicators suggest that Botswana has been moving steadily downwards in global rankings. Between 2008 and 2013, the country slipped 18 positions from 56 to 74 in the Global Competitiveness Index and 21 positions from 38th to 59th in the World Bank’s Ding Business ranking. The decline is explained largely by the absence of improvements rather than worsening policies.
According to the 2014/15 Global Competitiveness Index, Botswana’s primary weaknesses continue to include technological readiness, small market size and efficiency, as well as inadequate basic health and education. The country is rated highly in macroeconomic environment, reliable and legitimate institutions, and a well-developed financial market. In the World Bank’s Doing Business indicators, Botswana ranks poorly in trading across borders, dealing with construction permits and starting business.
Protection of intellectual property rights has improved and the legal system is sufficient to ensure commercial dealings. While access to credit has not emerged as a major concern, available evidence points to the need to improve access to credit by small and medium enterprises as they play a critical role towards the actualization of economic diversification.
The domestic banking system has remained profitable, liquid and well capitalized, although recently there have been increases in nonperforming loans to households. CSP indicated that the robustness of the financial sector is demonstrated by a number of prudential indicators pertaining to asset composition and portfolio quality.
Access to financial services remains low and it is estimated that about 33 percent of adults do not have access to such services. Non-Bank Financial Institutions have been growing rapidly in recent years, resulting in closer linkages with commercial banks. This has increased the probability of contagion with implications to the financial system and the economy. However, there has been a notable progress on supervision of the non-banking financial sector, including the establishment of a Non-Bank Financial Institutions Authority NBFIRA. NBFIRA has benefited from efforts to enhance its capacity and to develop a legal and regulatory infrastructure.
Greater challenges are coming from the high concentration of bank loans to households and the rapid growth of unsecured lending. The growth of household indebtedness has the potential of creating stress in the financial sector, and is a liability to the macroeconomic environment. Striking an appropriate balance between financial inclusion and stability is therefore emerging as a policy challenge for Botswana.
Meanwhile, the country’s capital markets have developed over the past two decades, but both the stock and bond markets are characterized by low liquidity which undermines their ability to provide price signals to the market. Capital market operations are largely conducted through Botswana Stock Exchange which operates and regulates equities and fixed interest securities market. While market capitalization is reasonably high at about 28 percent of GDP, there is a dearth of long tenured assets.
The government is the main issuer, however, the issuance is limited to only twice a year and currently the longest issuance has a 17-year tenor. To address the shortcomings in the financial sector, the government has launched a financial sector development strategy aimed at maintaining a robust framework for financial access for the underserved, and deepening financial markets and supporting intermediation of long-term financing, mainly by strengthening key institutions such as Botswana Stock Exchange and the Botswana Development Corporation.
HIGH LEVELS OF INEQUALITY
Inequality in Botswana is among the highest in the world despite the sharp decline in poverty, CSP added. It said income inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient is in excess of 0.55. This reflects the disparities in the quality of economic opportunities and services and underlines the need to ensure a more inclusive development.
The persistent high inequality level mainly emanates from the limited economic diversification and the dominance of minerals extraction in the country’s GDP and exports. Because mining absorbs only a small proportion of the workforce, long-term policies for poverty reduction have not been complemented by effective absorption of the poor into the productive economy.
Inequality also stems from the fact that Botswana’s vast size and thinly spread and small population make the provision of economic infrastructure and social services extremely expensive and present daunting challenges for the government. As a result, public support programmes have not generated significant growth in employment, and hence poverty reduction.
In conclusion, the CSP noted that the Kalahari Desert occupies 77 percent of Botswana’s land mass, leaving the country with limited supplies of arable land and fresh water. Erratic rain and drought are the country’s most frequent natural disasters. The country is also faced with land degradation due to overgrazing and diversification. Climate change is expected to adversely impact agricultural production and water resources.
The government has put in place a national environmental policy framework that covers all the relevant sectors. Conservation and sustainable management of natural resources are fully integrated in the development planning process. Over a third of the country’s total land area is under some form of conservation, with 17 percent designated as national parks and game reserves, 20 percent as wildlife management areas and 1 percent as forest reserves. Participation of communities in natural resource conservation is ensured through a community-based natural resources management programme.
The Bulb World Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and entrepreneur, Ketshephaone Jacob has been selected as a 2021 Top 50 Africa’s Business Hero.
Jacob was chosen from a pool of 12,000 applicants – many of whom are highly-skilled and accomplished entrepreneurs.
Africa’s Business Hero, sponsored by technology entrepreneur, Jack Ma, aims to identify, support and inspire the next generation of African entrepreneurs who are making a difference in their local communities, working to solve the most pressing problems, and building a more sustainable and inclusive economy for the future.
The initiative is as inclusive as possible and applications were open in English and French to entrepreneurs from all African countries, all sectors, and all ages who operate businesses formally registered and headquartered in an African country, and that have a 3 year-track record.
Every year, finalists are selected to compete in the ABH finale pitch competition and participate in a TV Show that will be broadcast online and across the continent.
The finalists will compete for a share of US $1.5 million in grant money.
The Bulb World, is home grown LED light manufacturing company, which was partly funded by Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA) at the tune of P4 million, to manufacture LED lighting bulbs for both commercial and residential use in 2017.
The Bulb World operate from the Special Economic Zone of Selibe Phikwe. Early this year, The BulB World announced its expansion to South Africa, setting in motion its ambitious Africa expansion plan.
During the first quarter of 2021, production in Botswana’s economic nucleus- the mining sector contracted by 12 percent. This is according to Mining Production Index released by Statistics Botswana this week.
The country’s central data body revealed that Index of Mining production stood at 74.4 during the first quarter of 2021, showing a negative year on-year growth of 12.0 percent, from 84.6 registered during the first quarter of 2020.
The main contributor to the decline in mining production came from the Diamonds sector, which contributed negative 11.7 percentage points. Soda Ash was the only positive contributor in the mining production, contributing 0.1 of a percentage point. However Soda Ash’s contribution was insignificant to offset the negative contribution made by Diamonds.
The quarter-on-quarter analysis by Statistics Botswana experts shows an increase of 16.3 percent from the index of 64.0 during the fourth quarter of 2020 to 74.4 observed during the period under review.
Diamond production decreased by 12.1 percent during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of the previous year. The decrease was as a result of planned strategy to align production with weaker trading conditions mostly linked to Covid-19 protocols restrictions.
Botswana’s diamond sector is underpinned by Debswana, the country’s flagship rough producer- a 50-50 joint venture between government and global mining giant De Beers Group. The other producer is Canadian based Lucara Diamond Corp through its wholly owned Karowe Mine which is a relatively small but significant production that has made a name for itself worldwide with rare diamond recoveries of unprecedented carat size.
On the other hand, quarter-on quarter analysis shows that production has improved, registering a positive growth of 17.5 percent during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the preceding quarter – 2020 Q4.
Though production was significantly lower in the first quarter, the two producers ended Q2 with rare diamond recoveries. Debswana early last month found the world’s third largest gem diamond – weighing 1098 carat at Jwaneng Mine, its flagship gem quality diamonds producer, also regarded the world’s richest diamond mine.
A week later Lucara announced its second biggest recovery, the 1174 carat clivage near-gem dug from its Karowe Mine. The diamond is the world third in carat size after the plus-3000 carat Cullinan found in South Africa back in 1905 and the 1758 carat Sewelo unearthed at its Karowe mine in 2019. Debswana and Lucara are investing billions of pulas in underground mining projects to extend the life of its mines, Jwaneng & Karowe respectively.
In terms of Gold which is produced at Mupani mine near Botswana’s second city of Francistown output decreased by 17.9 percent during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of the previous year.
Similarly, quarter-on-quarter analysis reflects that production decreased by 21.4 percent during the first quarter of 2021, compared to the preceding quarter. The decrease was as a result of the deteriorating lifespan of the mine as well as the impact of COVID-19 which slowed down the mining activities.
Soda Ash production increased by 11.1 percent during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of the previous year. In terms of quarter-on-quarter Soda Ash production also showed an increase, picking up by 2.1 percent during the period under review. The increase in production is attributable to the effectiveness of the plant following refurbishment which occurred in the third quarter of 2020.
Salt production decreased by 34.0 percent during the first quarter of 2021, compared to the same quarter of the previous year. Similarly, the quarter-on-quarter analysis shows that salt production registered a decrease of 32.9 percent during the period under review. Both salt and Sodash are produced by partly government owned Botswana Ash (BotsAsh) operating from Sowa town near Makgadikgadi pans.
Coal production decreased by 11.2 percent during the first quarter of 2021, compared to the corresponding quarter of the previous year. The decrease was attributed to the reduced demand from Morupule B Power Station following the remedial works being undertaken, as one boiler was in operation during the period under review.
Although production fell, Statistics Botswana says there was no shortfall in supply of coal due to stockpiling. On the other hand, the quarter-on-quarter comparison shows that coal production increased by 20.4 percent compared to the preceding quarter.
Botswana’s flagship coal producer is Morupule Coal Mine; a wholly state owned mining company located in Palapye producing primarily for Botswana Power Corporation (BPC)’s power generation plants Morupule A & B.
The other coal producer is Botswana Stock Exchange listed Minergy which operates a 390 MT Coal Resource mine in Masama near Media in the southwestern edge of the Mmamabula Coalfields.
Department of Mines in the Ministry of Mineral Resources, Green Technology & Energy Security has awarded mining licence to Tshukudu Metals-a subsidiary of Aussie firm Sandfire Resources ,giving the company a green light to start piecing the ground at its Motheo Copper Project near Gantsi.
Lefoko Moagi, minister in charge of mineral resources in Botswana confirmed to weekendpost on Tuesday. Minister Moagi revealed that “the licence has been approved , but Sandfire Resources as a listed company will report to its shareholders and investors then make an official public statement” he said.
Based on a forecast copper price of US$3.16/lb (reflecting current long-term consensus pricing) the Base Case 3.2Mtpa – Ghantsi copper project is forecast to generate US$664 million (over P7 billion) in pre-tax free cash-flow and US$987 million (over P10 billion) in EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation and Amortisation), at a forecast all-in sustaining cost of US$1.76/lb over its first 10 years of operations.
In December 2020, the Board of Sandfire Resources approved the commercial development of the Motheo Copper Mine located in the Kalahari Copper Belt in Botswana, marking a key step in its transformation into a global, diversified, and sustainable mining company.
Tshukudu Metals Botswana (Pty) Limited (Tshukudu) a 100% owned subsidiary will be the owner and operator of the Motheo Copper Mine which is scheduled to produce up to 30,000 tonnes per annum of copper in concentrate over a 12 year mine life.TMB is targeting development of its Motheo Copper Mine in 2021 and 2022, with its first production in 2023.
GOVERNMENT NOT TAKING UP 15 % STAKE ON OFFER
Beginning of this year presentations were made to the Department of Mines as part of the Mining Licence approval process and to the Ghanzi Regional Council, additional information was requested by Department of Mines in April and was duly supplied by the company.
As part of the Mining Licence approval process, the Government of Botswana has a right to acquire up to a 15% fully contributing interest in all mining projects locally. Quizzed on whether government through Mineral Development Corporation Botswana (MDCB) would be taking up stake in the project Minister Moagi said, “No consideration is being made on that regard”.
“Government is not considering taking up a stake in the Ghantsi Copper Mine project, every opportunity is assessed on all risks, but Government makes money all the while from leases, taxes and royalties, remember if you take stake you are liable for liabilities of the project as well,” Moagi said.
Last month Sandfire announced that it has awarded over P5 billion worth mining contract to African Mining Services (AMS), a subsidiary of Perenti, to deliver the open cast operation.
The contract, which has an estimated value of US$496 million (over 5 billion), is the largest single operational contract for the new Motheo Project covering a period of 7 years and 3 months, with provision for a one-year extension.
The contract according to Sandfire Resources was awarded following a competitive 3-stage tender process which saw a number of key factors taken into consideration when selecting the preferred contractor.
These included Citizen Economic Empowerment, safety culture, equipment suitability and availability, commercial terms and identified improvement opportunities. Under the terms of the contract, AMS has agreed to form a 70:30 Joint Venture with a suitable local Botswana partner or partners.
The JV is expected to be finalized ahead of commencement of mining in early 2022. African Mining Services has been operating in Africa for over 30 years. AMS’ parent company, ASX listed diversified mining services group Perenti, already has a presence in Botswana through Barminco, their underground mining division, at the large-scale Khoemacau Copper Mine located 200km north-east of Motheo.
Last month Sandfire executives said the award of the open pit mining contract represents another key milestone in advancing the Motheo Project towards production, with all components of the contract in line with the key parameters outlined in the December 2020 Definitive Feasibility Study (DFS).
The company said full-scale construction of the US$279 million (over P 3 billion ) mine development is expected to commence immediately upon receipt of the Mining Licence, with mining scheduled to commence in early 2022 ahead of first production in early 2023. This week Sandfire Resources advertised over 10 positions in calling on applications from geologists, mining engineers and geotechnical engineers.
The Motheo mine has an initial mine life of 12.5 years based on production from the T3 pit. The initial development is expected to generate approximately 1,000 jobs during the construction phase and 600 direct full-time jobs during operations, with at least 95% of the total mine workforce expected to be made of up of Botswana citizens.
Later in the week Sandfire Resources announced in the company website that it has received the licence. Sandfire’s Managing Director and CEO, Mr Karl Simich, said the award of the Mining Licence represented a major milestone that would see a significant increase in construction and development activities on site.
“We are absolutely delighted to now be in a position to move to full-scale construction at Motheo, with our construction crews expected to mobilise to site over the next few days. I would like to thank the Government of Botswana for their support throughout the approvals process, which will see Motheo come on-stream in 2023 as one of very few new copper mines commencing production globally.”
Simich said the project is expected to generate approximately 1,000 jobs during construction and 600 full-time jobs during operations, and represents the foundation for Sandfire’s long-term growth plans in Botswana.
“Our vision is that Motheo will form the centre of a new, long-life copper production hub in in the central portion of the world-class Kalahari Copper Belt, where we hold an extensive ground-holding spanning Botswana and Namibia,” he said.