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ADB: Botswana’s growth not inclusive!

African Development Bank’s latest report indicates that despite Botswana’s impressive economic performance; growth has not been inclusive. In particular, the high unemployment and inequality if unattended, has the potential of creating social unrest.

To ensure inclusive growth, Botswana needs to address its two main challenges which are limited economic growth diversification and inadequate infrastructure. Limited economic diversification has led to an increased dominance of government in economic activities which is constraining private sector participation.

Low private sector investment inhibits the progress of economic diversification, and in turn hinders overall manufacturing productivity, creating a vicious cycle of headwinds to growth. Public sector dominance has distorted the labor market and softened growth of the private sector. Large flows of diamonds revenues allow government to be the largest and a generous employer thereby inadvertently influencing the worker’s preference for the limited job opportunities in the government. This has created skills shortages in the private sector and also increased the reservation wage resulting in higher cost of production and low productivity.

The large public sector has become a growing source of inefficiency, weak competitiveness, and a constraint to private enterprise development. The special privileges extended to state-owned enterprises make it more difficult for the private sector, large enterprises and SMEs alike, to participate in certain key areas of the economy, thus inhibiting competition and associated gains in productivity and efficiency. Reforms are needed to remove inefficiencies, and promote productivity of the state-owned enterprises. In addition, Botswana needs to improve the business environment to become more competitive particularly with respect to South Africa.

Capacity constraints and skills shortages have been persistent despite significant public investments in educational facilities. The situation is further aggravated by the high incidence of HIV and AIDS. The shortage of skilled workers has hindered knowledge transfer and innovation. A sustained investment in human capital will ensure that long-term growth is more firmly based, as well as more inclusive, and will grow the importance as the economy diversifies and climbs up the value chain of both the manufacturing and the service sectors.

The report further indicated that the quality of some components of basic infrastructure at present is lagging behind many of Botswana’s peers. A concerted effort to improve the quality of infrastructure holds the key to transforming the economy and sustaining high growth.
Electricity supply in Botswana is inadequate and unreliable, with the available capacity of 322 megawatts falling far short of its demand of about 580 megawatts, which in the past has been partly met through imports.

The stabilization of Morupule B power station, with a potential output of 600 megawatts, is expected to ease the situation in the short term. In the medium to long term, it is envisaged that new generating capacity, Morupule C 2 X 150 megawatts brownfield project and another 2 X megawatts greenfield project, will be developed by the private sector under the framework of independent power producers. Low tariffs could pose constraints to attracting private sector participation in the electricity subsector.

Electricity tariffs need to be adjusted to improve the viability of the sector. It is also important to establish the legal and regulatory framework that is conducive to private sector participation, including a regulatory agency with adequate authority and capacity to regulate the sector.
While Botswana’s internal transport infrastructure network is considered adequate, its landlocked status and vast terrain significantly increases trading costs.

The provision of reliable transport services between the main population and production centers, and to neighboring countries remains one of government’s top priorities in order to encourage foreign investments in key sectors of the economy, such as mining, construction, manufacturing and tourism. For example, the exportation of coal will require a rail network to the posts. A well- developed transport system would assist this land-locked country to position itself gainfully so that it becomes a preferred transit route.

On the ICT sector, Botswana has very high mobile penetration rates, but internet access and fixed broadband subscription is low for a middle income country. Historically, Botswana has depended on satellites for its international bandwidth, and on other countries to transit capacity to landing points of international submarine fiber-optic cable systems. The virtual monopoly of the Botswana Telecommunications Corporation has resulted in high wholesale costs.

The landing additional cables in the region in 2011 and 2012 has improved the competitiveness in this regard. Transformation of the economy to advanced manufacturing and services will require faster and affordable broadband. To address this, the government is in the process of finalizing the national broadband strategy to roll out a high- speed and reliable network.

Water shortage remains a challenge. Botswana is a drought-prone country and suffers from water shortages especially in the southern part of the country, which makes food security challenging. Over 60% of domestic food demand is met through imports, underscoring the need for increased investment in irrigation infrastructure. The increasing rate of urbanization has also put significant pressure on its water resources for human consumption and industrial use. Inadequate and irregular water supply also constrains the growth of the manufacturing sector. To address the inefficiencies and long term sustainability of the sector, implementation of the water reform programme is ongoing.

The CDB report further highlighted that Botswana is not an aid dependent country, but has used the little ODA it receives effectively in support of development. When Botswana graduated to middle income country status, several development partners scaled down their activities. Despite this, Botswana has made significant progress in aid coordination and harmonization. The government launched the Development Partners Coordination Forum in September 2007, which meets twice a year.

The Forum comprises of government representatives, heads of diplomatic missions and bilateral and multilateral organizations including the Bank which always participates in scheduled meetings, benefiting from the proximity of the Bank’s Southern Africa Resource Center to the country. The Forum provides a two-way platform for information sharing on government policies, aid modalities and aid coordination in general. Nonetheless, the alignment and harmonization of donor support the low.

There are very few joint missions and analytical work, and routine sector working groups rarely meet. Consistent with the Paris Declaration and the Accra Agenda for Action, country systems for public financial management and procurement are continuously assessed and strengthened throughout Bank-funded operations.

It also indicated that the country benefits from support from a number of development partners, with European Union leading donor providing, among others forms of assistance, sector budget support to the education sector. The World Bank supports the public financial management reform process and energy generation, while the Bank’s focus is mainly on energy transmission and agricultural infrastructure. United Nations agencies spearhead capacity building initiatives while the United States leads support to the health sector, focusing on preventative measures on HIV and AIDS. Nonetheless, there are numerous donor supported operations, numbering about 140 in 2012.

However, the CDB has put down a strategy for Botswana. Botswana’s mineral-driven and public –sector led growth model provided four decades of strong performance but maintaining strong growth has been a challenge in recent years. In addition, growth has been less inclusive. The declining trend in growth may exacerbate Botswana’s already high income inequality and persistent unemployment. Tackling the high level of structural unemployment is important to improve the quality of economic growth.

Private sector led growth is essential if Botswana is to unleash its growth potential and sustain it. The will require a decisive reforms and innovative policies to reinvigorate productivity. Botswana is at a crossroad with the global downturn leading to a rethinking of the country’s development strategy. The MTR of the NDP10 recognizes that a new economic model is required.

Old policies need to be reviewed to make the case for an additional transformation to avoid a middle-income trap. The need to transform the country has long been recognized but the sense of urgency seems higher now than in the past. An ambitious agenda for new sources of economic growth and employment needs to be set.

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Details emerge in suspected Batswana poachers in Namibia

28th June 2022
suspected Motswana poacher arrested

New details about a suspected Motswana poacher arrested in Namibian and his accomplice who is on the run were revealed when the suspect appeared in court this week.

The Motswana Citizen who was shot and wounded by Namibia’s anti poaching unit is facing criminal charges under criminal case number (CR NO 10/06/2022) which was registered at the Divundu Police Station in the Mukwe constituency of the Kavango East Region on 10 June 2022.

It is alleged that a patrol team laid an ambush after discovering a giraffe’s fresh carcass in a snare wire and hanging biltong.  According to the Charge Sheet, the suspect Djeke Dihutu, aged 40 years, is charged with contravening and transgressions of Nature Conservation Ordinance andcontravening Immigration Act 07 in Mahango Wildlife Core Area, Bwabwata National Park. Dihutu’s first court appearance was on the 17th of June 2022, Rundu and it was postponed to the 07 July 2022. He is currently hospitalized in hospital under Police Guards.

Commenting on this latest development, the Namibian Lives Matter Movement National Chairperson Sinvula Mudabeti applauded the Namibian Anti Poaching Unit for its compliance with what it called the universal instrument on the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials adopted by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 34/169.

“We are aware that the duties of the police carry a great deal of risk, but our police has shown that they have a moral calling and obligation to protect even foreigners suspected of serious crimes on Namibian soil,” said Mudabeti.

According to him, whereas the Botswana Police Service, the Botswana Defence Force (BDF) and Directorate of Intelligence Service (DIS) have “very low moral ethics, integrity, accountability and honesty, the Namibian security agencies has shown very high levels of ethical leadership in the discharge of their duties even under duress.”

He said Namibian’s anti poaching unit has exercised one very important value, that is, the use of force only when it is reasonable and necessary. Mudabeti said this is in harmony with international best practices as enshrined in Article 2 of the UN instrument on law enforcement conduct, “In the performance of their duty, law enforcement officials shall respect and protect human dignity and maintain and uphold the human rights of all persons.

Our police have protected the life of a Botswana poacher and accorded him dignity, which is very foreign to our Botswana counterparts,” he said. He said article 3 of the same instrument above, calls for Law enforcement officials to use force only when strictly necessary and to the extent required for the performance of their duty.

“This provision emphasizes that the use of force by law enforcement officials should be exceptional; while it implies that law enforcement officials may be authorized to use force as is reasonably necessary under the circumstances for the prevention of crime or in effecting or assisting in the lawful arrest of suspected offenders, no force going beyond that was used by our Police,” he said.

Furthermore, Mudabeti said, whereas the universally accepted norm of the law of proportionality ordinarily permits the use of force by law enforcement, it is to be understood that such principles of proportionality in no case should be interpreted to authorize the use of force which is disproportionate to the legitimate objective to be achieved.

“Our police have used force proportional to the situation at hand. Great work indeed! Article 6 urges law enforcement officials to ensure the full protection of the health of persons in their custody and, in particular, shall take immediate action to secure medical attention whenever required,” he said.

Mudabeti said the Botswana poacher was immediately taken to hospital whereas the Nchindo brothers who were captured on Namibian soil, beaten, tortured and executed while pleading to be taken to the hospital we left to die.

“The Namibian Doctor gave evidence in court that Sinvula Munyeme’s lungs showed signs of life (during the autopsy) and that he could have survived if he was accorded immediate medical assistance in time but was left to die while BDF soldiers looked and possibly ignored his cry for help,” he said.

Mudabeti said unlike in Botswana where there are no clear separation of powers between the BDF, Botswana Police Service, Department of Intelligence and their Directorate of Public Prosecutions,” we have a system that allows for checks and balances and allows our people and foreigners who are found on the wrong side of the law to be accorded the right to a fair trial.”

He said Botswana citizens are treated with dignity when apprehended in Namibia and not assaulted, tortured and executed. “We are a civilized country that respects international law in dealing with non-Namibian criminals. The Namibian Police have not mistreated the Botswana poacher but have given him the benefit of the doubt by allowing due processes of the law to be followed,” he said.

He added that, “We are a peace loving nation that has not repaid Botswana by the evil that Botswana has done to Namibia by killing more than 37 innocent and unarmed Namibians by the trigger happy BDF.” He concluded that, “Our acts of mercy in arresting Botswana citizens should never be mistaken for cowardice.”

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Gov’t, Unions clash over accommodation

28th June 2022
accomodation

The government has reportedly taken a decision to terminate provision of pool housing and subsidy for civil servants as it attempts to trim the public service wage bill.

This emerges in a dispute that is currently before the Labour Office headquarters lodged by unions representing thousands of civil servants across the country. This publication understands that the decision to cease providing pool housing and rental subsidy for public officers is part of proposals that government put on the table during its negotiations with public service unions in order for it to adjust salaries.

A letter from Labour Office addressed to the Directorate of Public Service Management (DPSM) shows that the directorate is cited as the First Respondent. The letter is titled, “Dispute lodged: Cessation of provision of pool housing and subsidy for pubic officers.”

“This serves as a notification and requirement to a mediation hearing,” the letter informed DPSM. According to the letter, the Botswana Teachers Union (BTU), Botswana Sectors of Educators Trade Unions (BOSETU) Botswana Nurses Union (BONU) and Botswana Land Board &Local Authorities &Health workers Union (BLLAHW) who lodged the complaint are cited as the Applicant.

“Please come for mediation hearing. The hearing will be conducted by Mr Lebang. The hearing is scheduled for date/time 29th June 2022, 09: 00HOURS at Block 8 District Labour Office, Gaborone. Please bring all relevant documents,” reads the letter in part.

According to a document described as a proposal paper on the negotiations on salaries and other conditions of employment of public officers by the employer (government), the government did not only propose to stop providing accommodation to civil servants but also put a number of proposals on the table.

The proposal papers states that the negotiations (which have since been concluded) cover three government financial years; 2022/23, 2023/24 and 2024/25. The government proposed an across the board salary adjustments as follows; 3% for the financial year 2022/23 effective 1st April 2022, across the board salary adjustment of 3.5% for the financial year 2023/24 effective 1st April 2023 subject to performance of the economy and across the board salary adjustment of 4% for the financial year 2024/25 effective 1st April 2024 subject to performance of the economy.

The government also proposed phasing out of retention and attractive (Scarce Skills) Allowance with a view to migration towards clean pay, renegotiate and set new timelines for all outstanding issues contained in the Collective Labour Agreement, executed by the employer and trade unions on the 27th August 2019, to ensure proper sequencing, alignment and proper implementation.
The government also proposed to freeze public service recruitment for the 2022/23 financial year and withdraw the financial equivalence of P500 million attached to vacancies from Ministries, Department and Agencies (MDAs).

Another proposal included phasing out of commuted overtime allowance and payment of overtime in accordance with the law and review human resource policies during the financial year 2022/23, 2023/24 and 2024/25.

The government argued that its proposals were premised on affordability and sustainability adding that it was important to underscore that the review of salaries and conditions of service for public officers was taking place at a time when there were uncertainties both in the global and domestic economies.

“Furthermore there is need to ensure that any collective labour agreement that is concluded does not breach the fiscal deficit target of 4% of GDP,” the proposal paper stated. The proposal paper further indicated that beyond salary adjustments, the Government of Botswana is of the view that a more comprehensive consideration “must be taken on the issue of remuneration in the public service by embracing principles such as total rewards compensation which involves taking a fully comprehensive and holistic approach to how our organization compensates employees for the work.”

The proposal paper also noted that, “Clearly, the increase in salaries and changes to other conditions of service which have monetary consequences will further increase the proportion of the budget taken by salaries, allowances and other monetary based conditions of services.”

“The consequential effect would be a reduction of the portion that can be used for other recurrent budget needs (e.g. maintenance of assets, consumable supplies such as medicines and books) and for development projects,” the proposal states.

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BPF NEC probes Serowe squabbles

28th June 2022
BPF

Opposition Botswana Patriotic Front (BPF) National Executive Committee will in no time investigate charges party members worked with the ruling Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) membership to tip the scales in favour of the latter for Serowe Sub-council Chairmanship in exchange for deputy seat in a dramatic 11th hour gentleman’s deal, leaving the ruling party splinter under the political microscope.

In a spectacular Sub-council election membership last Thursday, the ruling BDP’s Lesedi Phuthego beat Atamelang Thaga with 14 votes to 12 for Serowe Sub-council Chairmanship coveted seat and subsequently the ruling party’s councilor Bernard Kenosi withdrew his candidacy in the final hour for the equally admired deputy chair paving the way for Solomon Dikgang of BPF, seen as long sealed ‘I scratch your back and you scratch mine’ gentleman’s agreement between the contenders.

Both parties entered the race with a tie of votes torn between 12 councillors each, translating for election race that will go down to the wire definitely. But that will not be the case as two BPF councilors shifted their allegiance to the ruling party during the first race for Chairmanship held in a secret ballot and no sooner was the election concluded then the ruling party answered back by withdrawing its candidacy for the deputy chair position to give BPF’s Dikgang the post on a silver platter unopposed.

BPF councilor Vuyo Notha confirmed the incident in an interview on Wednesday, insisting the party NEC was determined to “investigate the matter soon”. “During the race for the Chairmanship, two more BPF voted for alongside the ruling party membership. It was clear Dikgang voted alongside the BDP as immediately after the vote for Chairmanship was concluded, Kenosi withdraw his candidacy to render Dikgang unopposed as a payback,” Notha added.

As for the other vote, Makolo ward councilor will not be drawn for the identity preferring instead to say: “BPF NEC will convene all the councilors to investigate the matter soon and we will take from there.” Notha will also not be drawn to conclude may be the culprit councilors could have defected to the ruling party silently.

“If they are no longer part of us they should say so and a by-election be called,” was all he could say. As it stands now, the law forbids sitting Councilors and Parliamentarians from crossing the floor to another party as to do so will immediately invite for a new election as dictated by the law. Incumbent politicians will therefore dare not venture for the unknown with a by-election that could definitely cost their political life and certainly their full benefits.

Notha could also not be dragged to link the culprit councilors actions to BPF Serowe region Chairperson Tebo Thokweng who has silently defected to the ruling party and currently employed by the party businessman and former candidate for Serowe West Moemedi Dijeng as PRO for the highly anticipated cattle abattoir project in Serowe.

“As for Thokweng he has not resigned from the party but from the region’s chairmanship,” he said. WeekendPost investigations suggest Thokweng is the secret snipper behind the recruitment drive of the votes for the elections and is determined to tear the party dominance in Serowe and the neighbouring villages asunder including in Palapye going forward.

This publication’s investigations also show BPF’s Radisele and UDC’s Mokgware/Mogome councilors are under the radar of investigations for the votes-themselves associated with the workings and operations of Thokweng.

“NEC will definitely leave no stone unturned with their investigations to get into the bottom of the matter. Disciplinary actions will follow certainly,” Notha concluded, underscoring the need to toe the party line to set a good precedent. For the youthful councilor, the actions of his peers has set a wrong precedent which has to be dealt with seriously to deter future culprits.

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