World Health Organization’ s 2019 Statistics report says substantial progress has been made in reducing child deaths since 2000, with the global under-5 mortality rate dropping by 49%, from 77 deaths per 1000 live births in 2000 to 39 in 2017. This is equivalent of 1 in 14 children dying before reaching age 5 in 2017, compared with 1 in 13 dying before age 5 in 2000.
An estimated 5.4 Million children aged less than 5 years died in 2017, of whom 2.5 Million were female and 2.9 Million male. Of these deaths, 2.5 Million occurred during the first 28 days of life. Globally, death rates in the first month of life fell by 41% from 31 per 1000 live births in 2000 to 18 in 2017, a smaller reduction in mortality compared with the 54% reduction in mortality for children aged 1.59 months. Under-5 mortality rates are highest in the WHO African region and in low-income countries, where one child dies out of 14 born. More than half of under-5 child deaths are due to diseases that are preventable and treatable through simple, affordable interventions. The leading causes of death in young children over 28 days of age remain pneumonia, diarrhoea, birth defects and malaria. Rates of death from all conditions are higher in low-income countries, but children in low-income countries are more than 100 times more likely to die from infectious diseases than those in high-income countries.
Children who die within the first 28 days of birth suffer from conditions and diseases associated with lack of quality care at birth, or skilled care and treatment immediately after birth and in the first days of life. Preterm birth, intrapartum-related complications, infections and birth defects caused the most neonatal deaths in 2017.Most new born deaths take place in low and middle-income countries, and two regions accounted for almost 70% of new-born deaths in 2017- the WHO Africa Region and South-East Asia region. WHO says it is possible to improve the survival and health of new-borns by achieving high coverage of quality antenatal care, skilled care at birth, postnatal care for mother and baby, and care of small and sick new-borns. In 2017, male children were 11% more likely to die before the age of 5 years. Boys have a higher probability of dying before reaching the age of 5 years than girls for biological reasons, including less lung maturity at birth and less resistance to infectious diseases. New-born boys often weigh more at birth, but have higher perinatal mortality and more frequent congenital malformations. Immunoregulatory genes linked to the X-chromosome confer greater resistance to infectious diseases on girls, who have two X-chromosomes compared with boys, who have one X-chromosome.
The report further said because boys have a higher biological risk of death than girls, as assessment of gender bias in health outcomes cannot be based on equality of the under-5 mortality rate. Rather, mortality rates close to unity are indicative of female disadvantage. The risk of dying before the age of 5 years is higher in boys in all income groups set by the World Bank and in all regions. However, in the WHO South East Asia Region, the risk is almost equal, indicating high rate of avoidable mortality among females under the age of 5 years. Nutrition-related factors contributed to about 45% of deaths in children under the age of 5 years. Malnourished children, particularly those with severe acute malnutrition, have a higher risk of death from common childhood illnesses such as diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria. In most countries, a higher proportion of boys are malnourished than girls in the age group of 0-5 years.
Sex differences in nutritional status have been attributed to biological differences in morbidity between boys and girls in early life. In addition, boys grow faster during infancy, resulting in greater energy needs. Use of health care services can contribute to differences in mortality rates between boys and girls. However, most studies find that both girls and boys are equally likely to be taken for care when ill, although a bias is observed in some locations.In a United Nation’s Children Fund review, a higher proportion of boys were taken to treatment centres for pneumonia in six countries out of 67 with data, whereas in one of those 67 countries. Hospitalizations for pneumonia, diarrhoea and fever were found to be higher in boys than girls, whereas case fatality rates were higher in girls than in boys, perhaps as a result of greater delays in care –seeking or poorer quality of care. Gender-based discrimination in health care affecting girls is reported mainly from South Asia and China, with sporadic reports from Africa and South America. WHO stressed that vaccines are available for some of the most deadly childhood diseases, such as measles, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, pneumonia to Haemophilus influenza type B and Streptococcus pneumonia and diarrhoea due to rotavirus. Vaccination rates are similar between boys and girls. Use of pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines is lagging, especially in middle-income countries without donor support. Vaccination against both these diseases has the potential to substantially reduce deaths of children aged less than 5 years, because pneumonia and diarrhoea are the leading causes of death in this age group.
Globally, countries with a low under-5 mortality rate have high male female ratio of 31; 32, partly because congenital diseases predominate when mortality is low. Countries with a high under-5 mortality rate have low male female mortality ratios. Both high under-5 mortality rate and low male female ratios are associated with low socioeconomic status and gender inequality. Progress in reducing the under-5 in the male female since 2000 was accompanied by an increase in the M/F mortality ratio from 1.06 in 2000 to 1.11 in 2017, indicating that the decline in the female under-5 mortality rate was faster than that for males. Reductions in the under-5 mortality rate are accompanied not only by higher M/F ratios but also by reduction in fertility. Smaller families reduce the chances of a couple having a child of any givens sex. In societies with a preference for male children, reductions in the under-5 mortality rate have been accompanied by another type of female disadvantage- that is, a disadvantage in nasality- through selective abortion of female foetuses.Increases in the M/F sex ratio at birth have been seen in parts of East Asia, South Asia and the South Caucuses. Male female ratios at birth have been seen to be higher if a couple’s previous children have been female; also, multiparous women are more likely to have prenatal knowledge of the sex of their foetus, resulting in sex selection and more male births than in premiparous women.
A number of actions can be envisaged to address female disadvantage in populations with an atypically high female under-5 mortality rate, including policies to discourage sex-selective abortions, financial incentives to have female children, and policies that address the marginalized status of women or the provision of social protection in old age. The development of policies that will improve child health morbidity and mortality, and more qualitative research that can reveal the harmful gender norms and expectations that result in discriminatory treatment of boys and girls. Female disadvantage is of widespread concern and must be tackled. In addition, the WHO added that the specific needs of boys should be addressed. ‘’boys experience higher rates of mortality than girls in most of the world, and as the under-5 mortality rate falls globally, the M/F mortality ratio is increasing. In countries that have achieved large reductions in the under-5 mortality rate, additional actions may need to be taken to improve health outcomes for boys, to ensure continued progress towards SDG Target 3.2.
It goes without saying that men and women handle pain differently. Especially emotional pain. Men tend to be more emotionally immature compared to women when it comes to matters of the heart.
It is for this reason that men do not handle break ups or cheating as well as their counterparts. Where women have been groomed from a young age to express their emotions men have been told to “suck it up and be a man”. This may be one of the reasons why men are unable to express their emotions. It’s therefore that it can be a tad bit surprising that men cheat the most but are the weakest to deal when cheated on.
Research has proven that men find it difficult to digest being cheated on. British Psychotherapist, Philip Hodson opines that men find it hard to forgive cheating because it affects their masculinity, and to them, it might signal the end of the relationship.
“Men can forgive themselves for their indiscretions, but they find it much harder to forgive their partners for the same. For a betrayed woman, an affair by a man is an offence against her dignity, but for a betrayed man, a woman’s infidelity is an offence against his manhood. It goes right to the core of his identity,” said Hodson.
WeekendLife also interviewed a few gentlemen on their honest feeling about being cheated and if they find it hard to forgive their partners after cheating. Tinashe Mangiroza said, “From the beginning, men are designed with the potential to have and to reproduce with many spouses. Women on the other hand are more or less designed to focus on one man. Along with this natural design, women have stronger pain tolerance. Yes women feel pain when cheated on, but their tolerance is much higher than that of a man (in view of what I said above).”
“And men on the other hand have a low emotional pain tolerance, hence the higher suicide and murder rates among men. Then remember there’s also the ego element which men have. So when you combine a big ego, low pain tolerance and other things such as selfishness and competing with other men, it almost ends a man’s self-worth when a woman he loves decides to sleep with another man.”
He admits to have been cheated on before which he said it took away his self-esteem and he had to sleep around as a way of easing the pain whilst waiting to heal. Another gentleman who was also cheated at some point, Monwabisi Ndumiso Mgenge, highlighted that when a woman cheated on him it becomes very difficult for him to take her back because loyalty is everything to him.
“This is because most of the times relationship involves sex. You see the person naked you enjoy that, you don’t want anybody having what you have. You are emotionally invested and have imagined the future many times and this is why some get violent cause its trauma really.”
Psychologist at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Prof. Toba Elegbeleye said, “when it comes to marriage, men and women see things differently. He pointed out that a man tends to see the woman as possession, and so, the moment somebody else tries to cross the boundary and interferes with his property, there is bound to be serious problem.”
“So, it is not because women don’t care or they forgive so easily, but the circumstances don’t favour them as they favour men. If women were in a dominant position, they easily would have driven the man away. So, the moment a female has committed herself to marriage, for her to voluntarily and openly get out of it becomes a kind of stigma, and women cannot handle stigma, particularly where children are involved. Mothers would not want to walk away, unless it’s beyond their powers, thus they would rather endure.”
Thabiso Cavin Bogopa, an Empowerment Expert also shared with WeekendLife that men are wired different from women hence their response to cheating won’t be the same. “What may prove to be a difficulty in men forgiving cheating is that, generally speaking men sleep with who they can, women sleep with who they want, so the overarching thing becomes she cheated with her desire, the person she is actually attracted to and the cheated man struggles with that truth, as he realizes that sex for him is opportunity based, while for his counterpart is a deliberate and conscious choice.
This to a certain extent is what forms the challenge for men,” he explained. “Cheating devalues an individual both the cheater and cheated on, but more profoundly manifest in the cheated as they start to decrease in their self-esteem, losing their regard for themselves as they are undermined they may begin to try to address this trauma in multiple ways but more commonly through being exactly what they detest because they are stuck in the experience, they therefore cheat and become messed up.”
“No one gets away with cheating even if you never get caught, you become depleted as a person by the lies, trickery and illicit emotional trade. But if we may, the choice to forgive a cheating partner is a personal choice that goes both ways.”
It takes more than just having the body for the ramp to be an “it girl/boy” in the industry. A lot hows into being the cream de la cream. This includes intense coaching and being fortified to thrive in Botswana’s modelling industry as well as making a name for yourself beyond boarders.
No doubt that the likes of Kaone Kario, Mmina Gaebonwe and Emmanuel Kayenda are household names today because of their well-crafted talent. Which needs to be passed on even to aspiring models. Raymond Geofrey an Editor and Content Creator at Vogue magazine who is also known for his Pan African story telling through photography, shared with WeekendLife about what it means and what it takes to be an all-round model, who is capacitated to make a living from their craft.
“Models need good etiquette and good communication especially when dealing with clients reaching to them. They should be able to professionally communicate with them. They need to be efficient in their communication. Professionalism also entails time management during bookings, shootings and auditions. Models should always be early by 1 hour 30 minutes. Enquire about contracts and make contact with consultants. This also include seeking legal advice,” he said.
“Models should have business cards and business WhatsApp numbers. They should possess a good social media account such as Facebook pages with clear biographies. Posts should be sponsored.” Knowing how to transcend the ramp as a model is one of the things that is always a big deal to models and agencies. Geofrey highlighted that models ultimately must know how to walk spectacularly on the runway. When it comes to posing, models are often expected to kill it and bring their A game which in turn will help shine their personality.
Geofrey said models do not take time to read and study as well as research about posing. The more models are confident the more they are able to bring out their personalities on the shoot. He said self-awareness is also imperative, as models are required to be aware of themselves. When wearing heels and walking down the ramp, they should catwalk to the beat.
When it comes to the modelling industry in Botswana, they normally complain about numerous things which are pushing the industry backward. One of these he said is industrialization and policy making, the most lacking and key factors in need in the sector. “The modelling industry in Botswana is still not industrialized that is there are no laws or policies currently in Botswana to govern the trade of modelling in Botswana. Modelling is still not a legal registered profession in Botswana,” he said.
“Affiliation of local agencies to global/international modelling agencies; we have seen a rise in business revenue with regards to fashion modelling in Nigeria, Ghana, Uganda, Kenya etc, due to the fact that they are exporting a larger number of models overseas to walk at fashion shows like Paris Fashion Week. This is simply because they have affiliations, partnerships with agents/bookers/agencies based in fashion capitals of the world (Paris, London, Milan & New York).”
Lack of etiquette which he said is rather unprofessional, is one of the things that hold back local models. “A lot of models in the country still walk unranked at shows (New faces, freelance, full time, professional, international model etc). Also models lack training in the art of modelling (posing, runway, social media training, and business acumen.”
In the age of brand ambassadors, models have been key in this aspect in making brands known and marketable. Even so, they are many slots that define and categorize modelling work. “Fashion models are usually booked for shows or by designers. Editorial are more for official print/brand work such as for magazines (print/online), websites, blogs etc. Commercial are more on promoting business services of institutions, government or the private sector (including banking institutions, insurance, services providers etc). Fitness models are for promoting a healthy and active lifestyle, we see them booked by professionals sports/athletes/gym brands or the food & health industry (what is popular now is supplements such as herbal life),” he explained.
Like other countries, where models are paid a leg and an arm, the same should be incorporated in Botswana instead of exploiting them. “By respecting what models do and bring to the table; and you do that by paying them what they deserve on time,” Geofrey said. Geofrey is currently running classes for models called ‘Etiquette Class Models’ which offers runway coaching. It equips models with different types of walks. They also offer social media training and mentoring on running as a model entrepreneur.
Thabiso Tshwenyana is certainly a bright spark. He has been hitting the books, at the same time pushing hustle on radio! Well, you may not know who I’m talking about right now unless I refer to him as ‘Lerapo’, or ‘Bundle of Joy ya Radio’, as he is commonly called by his aficionados on radio.
Lerapo is resolute on taking over the entertainment and broadcasting space, of course wearing many hats as a radio host, content producer and a socialite. Not only that, he is a fresh Real Estate graduate currently functioning as a property analyst.
One may wonder how this young lad (currently 23-years-old) managed to be on radio, at the same time pursuing his Degree in Real Estate. Well, he says it took grit, time management and really doing what one likes. And he is right, because in today’s world anyone can call themselves a presenter. But it takes unparalleled skill, unbreakable determination, and heaps of talent to captivate an audience of millions.
Whether or not you think he’s the best, there’s no arguing that Lerapo is possibly the most prominent young radio presenter to hail from the Botswana. Initially starting his career in 2017, Lerapo earned himself a reputation as ‘Bundle of Joy ya Radio’ by consistently pushing the boundaries of what could be said and done.
His shows consists of outrageous humor and youthful content that’s shocking the radio establishment, and taking young people to cloud 9. The show is called The Youth Café on Duma FM, and airs every Saturday between 2PM and 2PM, broadcasting in vernacular.
When sharing with Weekendlife his startling life on radio and how he will be turning it down this year, he says the journey started back in 2017 at RB2 where he hosted a 30-minute feature. “I am definitely a go-getter. I love radio and this has been my childhood dream! I held onto this dream and survived against all odds. I am happy to be on radio because after all the knockings, snubs and distressing coercions, I persisted nonetheless. Sometimes it was just a matter of being at the right place at the right time.”
Before joining Duma FM in 2019, he was a content producer at yet another youthful urban radio station Yarona FM. At the age of 23-years old, Lerapo has worked at three radio stations, both government and private urban stations. Remarkable! For someone aspiring to be on radio, I can confidently say he is the pluq for inspiration and familiarity.
He continued to dish more on what radio really needs, saying “Taking time to perfect the craft, being open to learn from others and just digging down on books and the internet on how radio works did magic to me. It became easier to comprehend fully what I needed and how to go about getting it.”
Being a radio presenter means having a whole team prior to going on air. This means having a show prep, and reflecting on how the show went down with your producers or programs manager. Programs manager handles the business of the radio station and leave the voice and personality to the presenter.
Presenters have to follow rules of the programs manager even if they may not see eye-to-eye. They may prefer to play safe and repeat music even though sometimes a presenter prefers to take a risk and make changes to the music. Nevertheless, the success of the radio station lies in programs manager’s hands.
“After a show I usually have a reflection on how it went then I plan for the next show. On Tuesdays I have what we call an ‘air check’ with either the programs manager or his assistant to identify hiccups on the previous show and see how best to work on them to have a great delivery on the next show. Since I produce my own show, I give them a preliminary show prep. Once approved, I start contacting guests to be featured on the show and later share the final show prep a day before the show airs with the bosses.”
Still on his show, he does live reads. These are paid adverts that he discusses with the marketing department prior to his show going live. Well, as for a sizzling playlist, the music compiler knows how to serve him right.
He says a great radio hosts listens, reads and makes a show about the listener. ‘A common mistake we make as radio hosts is that we make the show about us and tend to feel that we know more than the listener. We also ought to respect the listener, these are our clients after all. Radio hosts should also refrain from relying on social media for content, most of it is fake and unverified by relevant authorities.”