A whitepaper published by the World Economic Forum, titled “The Sub-Saharan Africa Risks Landscape” outlined risks facing the Sub-Saharan Africa region with Botswana’s main risks being Unemployment, Water Crises as well as Cyber Attacks.
The report, published last week reveals that global risks increases as sub-Saharan Africa faces additional risks to its regional economy. Adding to the three aforementioned risks faced by Botswana, the two other risks include ‘failure of regional and global governance’ as well as ‘failure of national governance.’
The report is informed by the studies conducted by the WEF, through the 2018 Executive Opinion Survey, in which executives in 22 out of 34 countries in sub-Saharan Africa identified “unemployment and underemployment” as the most pressing concern for businesses. “No other region surveyed by the Forum recorded this level of consensus among respondents – highlighting the profound challenges that the region faces on this issue, particularly in light of the demographic and technological changes that lie ahead,” said the report.
According to the International Labour Organization, the unemployment rate in sub-Saharan Africa is 6 percent, but the report noted that this figure masks deep-seated problems as more than 70 percent of the region’s workers are in vulnerable employment – compared to a global average of 46 percent. “People in sub-Saharan Africa are still disproportionately likely to enter the labour market at a young age, and the region has the world’s lowest levels of access to higher education – a combination that is likely to perpetuate a cycle of low skills and working poverty,” noted the report.
“Yet, despite these risks, there are some positive trends. Economic and social conditions have improved over the past 20 years, with real per capita incomes rising 50 percent on average. Moreover, Africa’s population of young people is expected to double to approximately 830 million by 2050 – representing 29% of the total world youth population – a trend that could open new economic opportunities for the continent.
According to the African Development Bank (AfDB), “While 10 to 12 million youth in Africa enter the workforce each year, only 3.1 million jobs are created, leaving vast numbers of youth unemployed,” the report observed. One hurdle for economic growth on the continent – and the future employment of Africa’s current younger generation – is the challenging state of its infrastructure. According to the AfDB, there simply is not sufficient “infrastructure in power, water and transport services that would allow firms to thrive.”
The AfBD calculations estimate “that the continent’s infrastructure needs amount to $130– $170 billion a year, with a financing gap in the range $67.6–$107.5 billion.” The World Bank estimates that the continent’s infrastructure gap reduces productivity by approximately 40 percent. The report stated that, business leaders in sub-Saharan Africa surveyed by the Forum ranked “failure of critical infrastructure” as the fourth leading risk to business in the region.
According to the Infrastructure Consortium for Africa, out of a total of $81.6 billion committed to infrastructure development in Africa in 2017, 42 percent was from governments, 24 percent from China and 24 percent from bilateral donors, multilateral agencies and African institutions. Just 3 percent of investment came from the private sector.
The upcoming implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) – which will create the largest single market in the world for goods and services, as well as the free movement of investments and people – makes the need for investing in proper infrastructure even more pronounced, the reported said. “One reason for the challenge around infrastructure investment is a mixed fiscal picture on the continent. The region’s GDP is expected to grow at 3.8 percent in 2019 – an improvement over the 2.6 percent rate of 2018,” the report indicated.
“The aggregate growth rate for the region would be higher – 5.7 percent – if Angola, Nigeria and South Africa, which are growing collectively at an average of 2.5 percent and are the region’s largest economies, were excluded. However, according to the Brookings Institution, “The number of African countries at high risk or in debt distress has more than doubled from eight in 2013 to 18 in 2018”; and almost 40 percent of sub-Saharan African countries are at risk of slipping into a major debt crisis.
The region’s debt-to-GDP ratio has increased significantly over the past decade (from 23 percent in 2008 to 46% in 2017), and the high proportion of public borrowing creates conditions for potential future debt crises and limits policy-makers’ short-term flexibility: The IMF and the AfDB have already noted that rising debt-servicing costs are diverting public spending from investment.
The Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey reflected concern about these risks, with business leaders ranking “fiscal crises” as the fifth highest risk. Four countries ranked it in the top three risks (Burundi, Chad, Eswatini and Namibia). Thus, it is likely that debt-servicing demands will create pressures for government policy-makers to increase taxation and reduce public spending, including on development priorities such as health or education.
In addition, governments may choose to take out loans to pay off existing debt. Such measures would make it more difficult for the region to achieve the African Union’s Agenda 2063 targets, according to the report. Executives in sub-Saharan Africa ranked “failure of national governance” as the second leading risk to business. “This may not be surprising given recent political developments across the continent,” report said.
According to the Brookings Institution, “Since the beginning of 2015, Africa has experienced more than 27 leadership changes, highlighting the continent-wide push for greater accountability and democracy.” In 2018, 15 African countries held general elections, and in 2019 at least 20 nations are holding elections.
Top 10 risks for doing business in sub-Saharan Africa
1 Unemployment or underemployment
2 Failure of national governance
3 Energy price shock
4 Failure of critical infrastructure
5 Fiscal crises
6 Failure of financial mechanism or institution
7 Failure of regional and global governance
8 Water crises
9 Food crises
10 Unmanageable inflation
A squabble has broken out between Pule Mosala Funeral Parlour and the Botswana Police Service (BPS) over the remains of a South African national who has been in the Mosala mortuary for more than nineteen months. The deceased was one of 10 suspects who were controversially shot dead during a lengthy shootout with law enforcement authorities in Gaborone’s Phase 2 early last year.
The deceased individual’s family based in Soweto, has encountered difficulties in repatriating the body which has been in the care of Mosala Mortuary Services. Following the incident, it has emerged that all 10 bodies were transported to PFG mortuary in Lobatse for a brief period while the police attempted to locate their next of kin. It is reported that the families of the deceased were eventually identified and informed to come and identify their loved ones, including other South African nationals who were part of the criminal group. These families also witnessed the autopsy procedures conducted at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone.
Except for the family from Soweto, nine of the bodies were claimed and taken by their separate relatives. The Soweto family claims they lack the resources to bring the body back to South Africa and has made it known that they are looking for money. To end the supposed verbal agreement over the body’s storage for repatriation, Mosala Funeral Service has filed a case against the police at the Lobatse High Court.
According to Keakantse Mmotlhana, the company’s Sales and Marketing Manager, 10 people who were killed in Phase 2 by gunfire were all temporarily transferred to one of PFG’s branches in Lobatse by the police while efforts were made to find their next of kin. She expressed outrage at the statement made by the Minister of Defense and Security, recently.
After Assistant Police Commissioner Dipheko Motube called her office to apologize for giving the Minister wrong information during a news conference, she confirmed that they had accepted the apologies. He made it clear that one of the victims was still at Pule Mortuary in Lobatse.
Bushie Mosala, the director and owner of Mosala Funeral Services, confirmed that the body of a South African national has been in his mortuary for the past nineteen months. He expressed his desire for the police to remove the corpse from the mortuary, characterising the situation as a “nightmare.” He has instructed his legal team to file a lawsuit against the police in the Lobatse High Court concerning the body.
Mosala urged the acting Police Commissioner to come forward and apologize to the nation for the situation, asserting that the public has the right to know the truth regarding the body of the South African national, w
C -002Bhich was preserved by the police as evidence.
The South African High Commission in Gaborone had not responded to queries from Weekend Post at the time going of going to press.
Botswana Sectors of Teachers Union (BOSETU) has expressed alarm over a troubling trend by the government. Tobokani Rari, Secretary General of the BOSETU, stated that it appears that these days, whenever there is a dispute between workers and the government, the administration is fast to run to the courts to attempt and muffle unions.
“This is quite disturbing development, we have seen it with the Botswana Doctors Union, there was a disagreement over the shift allowance, government rushed to court, they indeed got order that was saying the doctors should go and do the work. We have seen it with the nurses, they rushed to court they got the order, we are now seeing it with the teachers, they rushed to the court and they got what they wanted,” said Rari, who also served as the Secretary General of BOFEPUSU.
Rari raised concerns that the government’s enforcement of teacher’s work, through a court order will result in reduced classroom productivity and morale. Rari added that this situation would negatively impact labour relations and teachers emotional wellbeing due to dissatisfaction in their work places leading to persistently poor academic outcomes.
“You can get an order that forces people to work, but what happens at work, it heightens emotions, it destroys relationships and the morale goes down and productivity does. Courts and judgments don’t solve productivity issues. Productivity only comes when people are satisfied at the workplace, so if you force them to work through a court order then you may not get the maximum out of the working population,” said Rari
MESD vs BOSETU COURT CASE
“As you are aware, the Ministry of Education approached courts and they were demanding three things from the court in this case between BOSETU and the ministry. First, they were demanding that the joint letter that was written by BOSETU and Botswana Teachers Union (BTU) asking members to stop doing course work because there was no agreement be declared unlawfully and BOSETU should write to its members and withdraw that letter within 24hrs. The second thing that they were looking for, was to interdict BOSETU from further issuing any instructions to that effect going forward. Lastly was that court should hold BOSETU to pay the cost of the lawsuit on a punitive scale,” Rari said.
Rari stated that the court decided to rule in favour of the Ministry of Education on all three relieves sought, that the savingram should be declared unlawful, that BOSETU should withdraw the contents savingram within 24hrs.
Court also said BOSETU should not issue any of such instructions going forward up until the case of contempt that BOSETU has taken to court, the contempt of the 2009 judgment has been decided. Court also awarded cost to the ministry on a punitive scale.
“BOSETU is a law abiding citizen and therefore we are bound by any laws and judgments that are there in Botswana and arise on the courts of Botswana hence we have complied with the order. On the 31st after the court case, we wrote to all our members and told them that the contents of that savingram as far as coursework is concerned has been withdrawn,” said Rari.
Rari said what happened in this case is that the judge decided to listen to the urgency without the responding affidavits of the opposing party, BOSETU, and went on to rule the merit of the case, which surprised the union.
“However we have been in discussion with our lawyers because if we leave things like this, we feel like we cannot leave that unchallenged. We have taken a decision to appeal the judgment,” Rari confirmed.
2023 COURSEWORK AND INVIGILATION AGREEMENT
“We would like to make our members aware that the following day after the judgment, we were able to meet the Ministry of Education and we have arrived at a conclusion that we signed an agreement that coursework rates will be increased by 5%. If court had ruled that coursework is the duty of the teachers’ means it wouldn’t have been any agreement after the court case, it tells you that the issue is still open and it is on the table. We have arrived at an agreement that there is going to be an increment on all components of coursework and invigilation,” Rari pointed out.
Rari further explained that Article 2 says union party is to submit detailed proposals on the intensity of the coursework for further engagement. Intensity of coursework means where the coursework payment starts in terms of varying from different subjects. He said the outcome based subject that are taught Maun Senior Secondary School and Moeng college which are agriculture and hotel and tourism is that ministry have agreed and acknowledge that there are some peculiarity in their coursework and therefore should be paid in line with the peculiarities that are contained in their coursework.
Rari pointed out the resolutions taken at the conference where the issue of application of corporal punishment was addressed. “BOSETU will issue out a memo to their members to advise them that they should not apply corporal punishment, they should leave it to be applied in line with the Education Act.”
The Botswana Meat Commission (BMC) which had struck a deal with the Ministry of Education to supply some schools in the northern part of the country is counting losses as mass migration of buffalos jeopardize the Commission’s plans.
Information reaching this publication shows that the beef exporter was recently given the greenlight to supply government schools with beef. According to documents seen by this publication, as a result BMC had scheduled to buy and collect cattle in the Nata-Gweta and Boteti constituencies from 11 to 17 September.
This was after BMC and the Ministry of Education struck a deal for the former to supply government schools with beef. Letters exchanged between Ministry officials state that it has been recommended to the ministry to support BMC by allowing it to supply schools with beef products.
The Ministry indicated that it was aware that some schools have contracts that are currently running with suppliers such as local butcheries.
The Ministry revealed that at the same time BMC has 256 tins of frozen quality meat at its Maun Plant.
The Ministry requested the Director-Regional Operations to appoint an officer to manage the procurement of meat for schools that do not currently have running contracts. The Ministry further stated that Modalities of collection will be arranged between the region and the schools identified.
According to the Ministry, a list of schools including the condition of their cold rooms and their number of deliveries and kilograms per week they buy should be compiled. The Ministry also requested its officials to share the list with headquarters and the acting director-Basic Education, and engage BMC accordingly to procure.
But this plan ran into trouble after it emerged that between 300 to 500 buffalos migrated from the buffalo fence area to Nata, Dukwi and Mosetse areas.
The Department of Veterinary Services sprang into acting by revising movement protocol for cloven-hoofed animals with immediate effect following buffalo sightings in zone 3b which covers Nata/Sowa, zone 3c which is around the Dukwi areas as well as zone 6a, which covers the Mosetse area, which fall under zones, 3b, 3c, 5,6a and 8.
The Department of Veterinary Services indicated that as a result, movement of live cloven-hoofed animals and their products out of zones 3b, 3c, 5, 6a and 8 were prohibited and that movement of live cloven-hoofed animals within and into these zones is only allowed for direct slaughter at licensed slaughter facilities under veterinary movement permit issued through BAITS.
The department also indicated that the movement of fresh products derived from cloven-hoofed animals such as raw milk, skins and fresh meat into these zones is also only allowed under a similar arrangement.
Movement of live cloven-hoofed animals into these zones for rearing and other purposes will not be allowed, and farmers and the general public is requested to continue being vigilant and report any buffalo sightings to the nearest veterinary office, the police or the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, the department said.
Meanwhile the Ministry of Agriculture has stated that following the press release on prohibition of movement of live cloven-hooved animals and their products in and out of Zones 3b, 3c, 5, 6a & 8, the acting Minister of Agriculture Karabo Gare, his counterpart Acting Minister of Environment, Wildlife & Tourism Mabuse Pule, acting Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Agriculture Mr. Joshua Moloi, Director of Veterinary Services Dr Kefentse Motshegwa and other government officials visited the areas of Sepako and Dukwi respectively on a mission to consult with communities regarding the invasion of the places by buffalos.
Minister Gare alluded that they have been sent by the President of Botswana, who is equally worried by the current situation. He noted that the affected areas have a total of around 300000 cattle and if the situation goes unchecked, there might be detrimental effects on the economy of this country.
He encouraged the communities to help government going forward by reporting any spotted buffalos in their areas, emphasizing that buffalos are dangerous and can kill people and that care should be exercised at all times.
The Director of Veterinary Services mentioned that they closed the above mentioned zones to allow for testing of buffalos & cattle for foot & mouth disease. The wildlife department’s Director Mr. Moremi Batshabang assured farmers and the community that they will eliminate small clusters of buffalos found within communities and translocate larger clusters to ensure their safety.