A recent study titled: “Education financing research report at national level; the case of Botswana”, released this week has recommended that the rich people in Botswana should sponsor the education sector in the country.
Having analysed the Botswana context and based on other experiences in the country the study came up with some innovative options to provide additional resources to the education segment.“Some of these ways are taxing multi-millionaires; putting a levy on the mining sector, as well as increasing Official development assistance (ODA) support, and curbing illicit financial flows in the mining sector to make more resources available as government revenue,” study posits.
According to the study, Botswana has about 5 Multi-Millionaires; Abdul Satar Dada who owns Associated Investment Development Cooperation (AIDC), he is worth US$50 million. There is also Gulaam Husain Abdoola, owner of Turn Star Holdings, worth US$25 million; then Chandrakanth P Chauhun, from Sefalana Group and is worth US$12 million; as well as Ramachandran Ottapathu, Chief Executive Officer of Choppies who owns 19.5% in Choppies valued at US$60 million.
In addition there is Farouk Essop Ismail, Deputy CEO of Choppies who owns Far Properties worth US$35 Million and also 14.6% in Choppies worth US$45 million. Alexander Forbes, one of the Billionaires and philanthropist of the world states that‚ business was originated to produce happiness and not to pile up money.
Therefore, “these 5 rich people in Botswana and any upcoming rich persons could be taxed in a manner that their taxes are made special to meet education needs in the country,” study highlights. The study came with the recommendation after finding that the education financing model in Botswana is heavily dependent on government providing the resources.
Although government has provided resources to education sector above 20% and 6% of Botswana Gross Domestic Products (GDP), the resources are not adequate due to growing needs of the sector; resources to education sector are provided through a number of channels or line ministries creating coordinating challenges. It states that other than financing the sector from pubic resources, the sector does not have other innovative financing models. “Experiences of financing needs at the tertiary level have led to the education sector to begin to search for new innovative financing mechanisms as dependency on public resources is not sustainable,” it stresses.
Study suggests Botswana should also introduce education Levy
In addition to taxing millionaires, the study points out that Botswana is probably the only country in Southern Africa that has an alcohol levy imposed to generate funds for rehabilitation of alcoholics and to meet alcohol related ill health in public hospitals. Introduced in 2008, the levy rates have been increased over the years and over 1.2 billion Pula has been collected. Although the inception, management and its utilization has been a borne of contention in the country, resources have been generated that could go a long way to deal with effects of alcohol consumption in the country.
Borrowing a leaf from this and knowing well the importance of education to the country and that it is amongst the top five government priorities, the study states that “an education levy could be imposed also on certain commodities such as alcohol or fuel just to generate additional resources for education.”
Freezing up some portion of foreign reserves for education
According to the Reserve Bank of Botswana, foreign reserves are assets held by the Bank of Botswana in foreign currencies. The reserves are accumulated mainly through surpluses on the balance of payments together with increases to the value of existing foreign currency investments. The report states: It is important for Botswana to maintain adequate foreign exchange reserves to be able to meet the demand for foreign currency to pay for imports of goods and services on an ongoing basis, as well as meet other international payment obligations, including the costs of servicing international debt.
“Much as the Botswana government has such reserves aimed at meeting import needs of the country as well as making sure that the country does not suffer from economic shocks, some of the reserves could be used to meet domestic needs such as financing education with the ever growing needs in the sector. The education sector can request special provision from the MFDP so that it could have the education budget increased,” it states.
The bank states that as at the end of 2014, the reserves had increased by 16.7 percent from P67.8 billion recorded a year earlier, due to net foreign exchange inflows and the depreciation of the Pula against major international currencies. The reserves were sufficient to cover approximately 18.5 months of imports of goods and services. As of April 2015, the reserves were P89.4 billion, the equivalent of 20 months of import cover.
Cost Sharing arrangement crops again
Most technicians in the study were of the opinion that much as the Botswana government provides 99.1% of financing to basic education services, this is not sustainable in the light that domestic resources are dwindling due to a number of reasons ranging from loss of revenue as some players in the private sector are shutting down operations in Botswana; there is also a growing need for financing to other social sectors such as health.
“It was therefore suggested that a cost-sharing model be introduced whereby parents and guardians who are well-to-do, should be able to meet costs of footing education for their wards and those that are not able to meet such costs can them be taken under government support programme fully,” it posits. Currently parents and guardians do not pay school fees for basic education but only at senior secondary level. Although this came out loud and repeatedly from many technicians, they were also quick to indicate that this will require political will to be implemented.
Botswana’s Key Education Priorities are articulated in the: National Policy on Education; the Revised National Policy on Education; the new Tertiary Education Policy; the National Vocational Training Policy; the National Credit and Qualification Framework; the Maitlamo Information Communications Technology (ICT) Policy, Vision 2016 (now Vision 2036), and the Science and Technology Policy, together with other government policies.
Current funding sources of education in Botswana
Meanwhile, current funding sources to the education sector in Botswana are: public resources through the National Budget; through Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) as grants and technical support from development partners; from the private sector and from parents and guardians of students through school fees and development fund payments.
The study looked at the financing model used for the last 8 years between 2010/2011 and 2017/2018 assessing existing financing documents, policies and their relevance and ability to provide education to persons in the hardest to reach areas of the country as well as to what extent the existing model is able to mobilize resources to adequately finance the sector.
It was conducted for the Botswana Coalition on Education for All (BOCEFA), with support from Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA) through Africa Network Campaign on Education for All (ANCEFA) whose broad aim was to determine and suggest the best possible efficient and innovative education financing model for the country looking at the country context. In the study, Government officials were interviewed especially those from the Ministry of Finance Planning and Development; the Ministry of Basic Education (MOBE) Corporate services, the Ministry of Tertiary Education and Research and the Human Resources Development Council.
Despite being hailed and still regarded as a hero who saved many lives through his decision to crash the BF5 fighter Jet around the national stadium on the eve of the 2018 BDF day, the deceased Pilot, Major Clifford Manyuni’s actions were treated as a letdown within the army, especially by his master-Commander of the Air Arm, Major General Innocent Phatshwane.
Manyuni’s master says he was utterly disappointed with his Pilot’s failure to perform “simple basics.”
Manyuni was regarded as a hero through social media for his ‘colourful exploits’, but Phatshwane who recently retired as the Air Arm Commander, revealed to WeekendPost in an exclusive interview that while he appreciated Batswana’s outpouring of emotions and love towards his departed Pilot, he strongly felt let down by the Pilot “because there was nothing wrong with that Fighter Jet and Manyuni did not report any problem either.”
The deceased Pilot, Manyuni was known within the army to be an upwardly mobile aviator and in particular an air power proponent.
“I was hurt and very disappointed because nobody knows why he decided to crash a well-functioning aircraft,” stated Phatshwane – a veteran pilot with over 40 years of experience under the Air Arm unit.
Phatshwane went on to express shock at Manyuni’s flagrant disregard for the rules of the game, “they were in a formation if you recall well and the guiding principle in that set-up is that if you have any problem, you immediately report to the formation team leader and signal a break-away from the formation.
Manyuni disregarded all these basic rules, not even to report to anybody-team members or even the barracks,” revealed Phatshwane when engaged on the much-publicised 2018 incident that took the life of a Rakops-born Pilot of BDF Class 27 of 2003/2004.
Phatshwane quickly dismisses the suggestion that perhaps the Fighter Jet could have been faulty, “the reasons why I am saying I was disappointed is that the aircraft was also in good condition and well-functioning. It was in our best interest to know what could have caused the accident and we launched a wholesale post-accident investigation which revealed that everything in the structure was working perfectly well,” he stated.
Phatshwane continued: “we thoroughly assessed the condition of the engine of the aircraft as well as the safety measures-especially the ejection seat which is the Pilot’s best safety companion under any life-threatening situation. All were perfectly functional.”
In aircrafts, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft in an emergency. The seat is propelled out of the aircraft by an explosive charge or rocket motor, carrying the pilot with it.”
Manyuni knew about all these safety measures and had checked their functionality prior to using the Aircraft as is routine practice, according to Phatshwane. Could Manyuni have been going through emotional distress of some sort? Phatshwane says while he may never really know about that, what he can say is that there are laid out procedures in aviation guiding instances of emotional instability which Manyuni also knew about.
“We don’t allow or condone emotionally or physically unfit Pilots to take charge of an aircraft. If a Pilot feels unfit, he reports and requests to be excused. We will subsequently shift the task to another Pilot. We do this because we know the risks of leaving an unfit pilot to fly an aircraft,” says Phatshwane.
Despite having happened a day before the BDF day, Phatshwane says the BDF day mishap did not really affect the BDF day preparations, although it emotionally distracted Manyuni’s flying formation squad a bit, having seen him break away from the formation to the stone-hearted ground. The team soldiered on and immediately reported back to base for advice and way forward, according to Phatshwane.
Sharing the details of the ordeal and his Pilots’ experiences, Phatshwane said: “they (pilots) were in distress, who wouldn’t? They were especially hurt by the deceased‘s lack of communication. I immediately called a chaplain to attend to their emotional needs.
He came and offered them counselling. But soldiers don’t cry, they immediately accepted that a warrior has been called, wiped off their tears and instantly reported back for duty. I am sure you saw them performing miracles the following day at the BDF day as arranged.”
Despite the matter having attracted wide publicity, the BDF kept the crash details a distance away from the public, a move that Phatshwane felt was not in the best interest of the army and public.
“The incident attracted overwhelming public attention. Not only that, there were some misconceptions attached to the incident and I thought it was upon the BDF to come out and address those for the benefit of the public and army’s reputation,” he said.
One disturbing narrative linked to the incident was that Manyuni heroically wrestled the ‘faulty’ aircraft away from the endangered public to die alone, a narrative which Phatshwane disputes as just people’s imaginations. “Like I said the Aircraft was functioning perfectly,” he responded.
A close family member has hinted that the traumatised Manyuni family, at the time of their son’s tragedy, strongly accused the BDF ‘of killing their son’. Phatshwane admits to this development, emphasising that “Manyuni’s mother was visibly and understandably in inconsolable pain when she uttered those words”.
Phatshwane was the one who had to travel to Rakops through the Directorate of Intelligence Services (DIS) aircraft to deliver the sad news to the family but says he found the family already in the know, through social media. At the time of his death, Manyuni was survived by both parents, two brothers, a sister, fiancée and one child. He was buried in Rakops in an emotionally-charged burial. Like his remains, the BDF fighter jets have been permanently rested.
A matter in which former President Lt Gen Ian Khama had brought before Broadhurst Police Station in Gaborone, requesting the State to charge Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC) lead investigator, Jako Hubona and others with perjury has been committed to Headquarters because it involves “elders.”
Broadhurst Police Station Commander, Obusitswe Lokae, told this publication this week that the case in its nature is high profile so the matter has been allocated to his Officer Commanding No.3 District who then reported to the Divisional Commander who then sort to commit it to Police Headquarters.