People assume that if you are skinny, you are healthy- people only get diabetes if they’re overweight or obese. Right? Well, no. No matter how thin you are, you can still get heart diseases.
Many recent studies show that cardiovascular diseases are also experienced by individuals who are underweight; they are more at risk than people of a normal body mass index value. Cardiovascular diseases are influenced by a lot of factors other than excessive weight. A person is classified as underweight if his or her Body Mass Index BMI value is less than 18.5. a lack of weight can be caused by malnutrition, infection or genetics.
Keep in mind that overweight and obesity are not the only conditions that can cause cardiovascular disease, which is in fact generally caused by an unhealthy lifestyle characterised by smoking, a lack of physical activity, or a high intake of fat or salt, which gives rise to high blood pressure and fat deposition around the veins and heart. Skinny people are at risk. Many recent studies show that underweight people also suffer from cardiovascular diseases, and that they are at a greater risk than those with a normal BMI value.
A study from Bali shows that underweight people are 3.6 times more likely to experience coronary heart disease than those of normal weight. If the coronary artery is affected, underweight individuals are at greater risk of an early death than those who are either of normal weight or overweight. Research shows that women with coronary artery disease are twice as likely as their healthy counterparts to die early. It also shows that for overweight individuals who are not in the process of gaining weight, the risk of death related to the coronary artery drops by 64 per cent.
Meanwhile, underweight people who are still losing weight are at an increased risk of death. Causes that may lead to cardiovascular diseases in people who are underweight are congenital heart disease, which is indicated by a low heart function due to disorder of the valve’s wall and the heart’s arteries. Based on research, people with congenital heart disease and low body weight are 12 times more at risk of cardiovascular disease.
There is a tendency of no physical activity with people who are underweight. Physical activity is one way to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. A lack of physical activity, on the other hand, can cause fat deposition in the blood that can lead to cardiovascular diseases. Further, it was noted that it is easy to have low body fat and having unhealthy eating habits, and underweight people tend to not worry about consuming fast food and failing to strike a balance. Even though it may not immediately show in their body, they may still have an elevated blood sugar level. So, low body fat with unhealthy eating habit has been proved to be one of the causes of cardiovascular disease in underweight people.
Furthermore, research underlined that a condition known as central obesity is not uncommon in people with low body weight. Compared evenly distributed fat, people who have fat around the abdomen are more at risk of cardiovascular disease than those with regular obesity. It was indicated that lack of haemoglobin serum is also one of the conditions that cause heart disease. This condition is higher in people who are underweight.
Research in Ethiopia showed that the haemoglobin level can significantly affect heart failure and that a normal level of its serum reduced the risk of heart failure by 23 per cent. Body weight is not the only cause of cardiovascular diseases. Overall body health, along with your diet and physical activity, are things one needs to pay attention to in order to maintain a healthy heart and blood vessels, regardless of whether you are underweight, normal or overweight.
Meanwhile, according to World Health Organization WHO, the world today has more obese than underweight people. A staggering 1.9 billion adults around the world are currently carrying excess weight as the obesity epidemic continues to spread. In addition, 340 million children of school age and 41 million children below the age of five years are also overweight and obese, and this was said by Dr Leanne Riley, team leader for surveillance of non-communicable diseases at the WHO.
‘’Sadly, the figures are even worse in the UAE, with the prevalence of overweight and obese schoolchildren in the UAE being roughly double the global prevalence. One in every three school-age children is obese or overweight, and 17 per cent of schoolchildren are known to be obese’’ Dr Riley said. According to experts, there are more people in the world today carrying excess weight than underweight people, and this has happened for the first time in human history.
Not only are nearly two billion adults carrying excess weight but 650 million of them are obese, and the prevalence of obesity has tripled in the last four decades. ‘’Obesity is spreading like wildfire across the world, and the Gulf region has proved to be particularly susceptible. By implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention and management plan, combating obesity stigma, making healthy food available and providing safe spaces to exercise, we can stop the epidemic from spiralling out of control’’ said Dr Ian Caterson, President of the World Obesity Federation.
The WHO has already set targets of a zero increase in the proportion of overweight children internationally by 2025, and of halting the rise in prevalence of diabetes and obesity among adolescents and adults by the same period. To that end, experts commended the UAE’s implementation of a 50 per cent tax on sugary drinks, a move which is seen as the first step towards combating the scourge of excess weight and unhealthy eating.
‘’We know that multi-sector engagement is key to achieving our goal, and we have a number of initiatives aimed at improving nutritional standards, enhancing the urban environment and even measuring the impact of the taxon sugary drinks’’ Dr Farida Al Hosani, Director of Communicable Diseases at the Abu Dhabi Department of Health said.
For his part, Dr Doug Betcher, Head of Non-Communicable Diseases at the World Health Organization, stressed that the environment itself should support the fight against obesity. ‘’The environment cannot be obesogenic in a way that promotes sedentary lifestyles and the consumption of high-calorie diets. We must also encourage more childhood activity and effective weight management in primary health acre settings’’ he said.
Presidential Commission of Inquiry into the Review of the Constitution held a meeting in Serowe this week. The meeting was to accord Bangwato, just like other tribes, a platform to give their opinions, contributions and what they think is the horse power and limitations of the current Constitution of Botswana.
Bangwato Regent, Kgosi Serogola Seretse said, he is of the understanding that the Commission has not come for anything apart from getting their opinions on how things could be made better. His contribution was that he solely knows of only two social positions in the world; Dikgosi and Pastors. He said other positions are just benedictions. He further urged that, Batswana should respect God’s ordained protocols such as Dikgosi and Pastors.
Seretse pointed out the importance of acknowledging and appreciating Dikgosi as nation builders. He cautioned and warned that, the Commission should ensure that their dealing with Dikgosi is harmonious. He called for an amendment to be made on the ‘National Order of Precedence’ noting that Dikgosi are put at number 11, but should at least be taken a little higher to number 7.
One resident, Tshepo Moloi while giving his contribution said there must be provisions of Social Justice that ensure equal distribution of resources to all citizens. He said this provision should entail an obligation that all citizen have equal opportunities to different Government Initiatives. Moloi substantiated that, all ‘Presidential Commissions’ be engraved on the Constitution
Alfred Thogolwane who is as well a resident of the biggest village in the Central District, pointed out the need for preservation of the country and resources thereof, saying “it must dawn onto all that, the calabash that fetches water for the family cannot fixed once its broken.” Another resident, Keikantsemang Sebedi advocated for Polygamous marriage, saying that men should marry as many wives as they please. She said there is no need for any socioeconomic assessment done on men who wish to marry more than one wife.
She advised that, the country should benchmark from the Zezuru culture that does it, with no complexities. On the other hand, Sebedi said that, there must be considerations done on the Old Age Pension. She said people who earned P4000 should not receive the old Age Pension upon their fullness of age. Forshia Koloi called for amendments on Section 77 and all the provisions that speaks to the subject of Bogosi and the powers infested in them. He said they should be made more detailed and avoid ambiguity in clauses.
Mr Tlhaodi said there must be Land Audits done in the country. Citing an example of the Tati Land as one that should be thoroughly audited. He further advised that, Election Day be put on the Calendar. He said, if it happens that the day be a Saturday, there should be some special dispensation for the 7th Day Adventist Church members to take part in voting without compromising on their day of worship. Tlhaodi added that there must be People’s Complaint Commission in the country.
Speakers emphasized the need for the country to review the exercise of ‘Political Party Funding’. They articulated that lack of funding political parties’ results in political parties resorting to finding funds for themselves. They reiterated that sometimes going to the extent of getting funds through illegal means. Bangwato agreed in one accord that they want the President be tried whilst in office if suspected of any criminal offences. This was revealed in their contributions. They pointed out that, the law should not to wait until the end of their tenure.
For his part, the Deputy Chairperson of the Commission Johnson Motshwarakgole expressed gratitude to the residents of Serowe. He applauded women for their kindness saying it is only them, who always take responsibility for doing things amicably in the society.
Parliament has revealed that it plans to rollout a Community Score Card (CSC) exercise as part of sweeping reforms to its role and mandate among others.
The planed shakeup, along with the rollout of CSC will see creation of new Parliamentary Portfolio Committees on Health, HIV&AIDS, Education and Skills Development, Trade and Economic Development, Agriculture, Lands and Housing and Local Governance and Social Welfare. Parliament informed government ministries and departments that the CSC is a participatory, community based monitoring and evaluation tool that enables citizens to assess the quality of public services and interact with services providers to express their concerns.
According to Parliament, the CSC will assist to inform community members about available services and their entitlements and to solicit their opinions about the accessibility and quality of certain services related to the portfolio committees mentioned. It said the main objective is for Parliament through identified oversight committees is to conduct a participatory monitoring and evaluating process that puts ownership and responsibility for delivery of services in the hands of both the Government and the service recipients.
“Through scorecards developed around identified sectors and services, communities and implementing departments remain in touch with progress made through the programme delivery cycle and are able to respond timely to bottlenecks,” the National Assembly said. Some of the measurements and expected outcomes for the rolling out of the CSC include among others, improved monitoring and economic evaluation, to determine the impact of spending, so as to be able to direct resources from where they having the least benefit to those projects and programmes where they will have a larger positive impact.
The National Assembly explained further that this could result in a willingness to close down ineffective programmes and institutions and not to implement projects that do not deliver adequate returns, improved productivity in the public services, especially given the substantial pay increases.
The National Assembly believes that the rolling out of CSC is also expected to result in efficiency savings: many public services and programmes could be delivered more effectively at lower costs, by improving management and accountability, and making use of e-services. “This would yield financial savings that could be used for development programmes or reducing the deficit,” the National Assembly said.
The exercise is also expected to result in “Careful scrutiny of subsidy schemes and termination of those that do not address market failure or assist truly needy Batswana.” The National Assembly revealed that proposed Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Health and Wellness has been established in accordance with the Standing of National Assembly of Botswana. It explained that the mandate of the Committee is mainly to exercise Parliamentary oversight and scrutiny over Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies with portfolio responsibilities in respect of Health and HIV/AIDS.
“There is need to identify reasons for inefficiency and poor outcomes and ensure that health system reform improve productivity and value for money. Key areas of focus for scorecard, availability of drugs, staffing ratios, accessibility of health services, speciality care and services and sexual reproductively health,” the National Assembly said.
Another proposed Committee is on Local Governance and Social Welfare. The mandate of the Committee is mainly to exercise Parliamentary Oversight and Scrutiny over Government Ministries. Departments and Agencies with Portfolio responsibilities in respect of Local Governance and Social Welfare.
“Strategies under NDP 11 to improve outcomes of social uplifment include; diversiﬁcation of rural economies, development and support of small businesses, provision of social safety nets, eradication of absolute poverty, provision of quality and equitable education and harmonisation of social protection programmes,” said the National Assembly. It said social nets need to be improved so as to target these most in need (at present some social safety nets benefit many people who are not the most needy, but also miss out some of those who are needy).
“Some social development policies more broadly should also aim to reduce household vulnerability to shocks such as those arising from fluctuations in agriculture, climate change, incomes and employment and improve their ability to handle shocks, thereby building household resilience,” the National Assembly said.
Another Committee established is on Agriculture, Lands and Housing. The mandate of the Committee is mainly to exercise Parliamentary oversight and scrutiny over Government Institutions, Departments and Agencies with portfolio responsibilities in respect of Agriculture, Lands and Housing.
The National Assembly said the average growth rate of the agricultural sector since the beginning of National Development Plan 11 (NDP11) (i.e. during the 2017/2018 and 2018/19 financial years) was 2.5 percent, making it the slowest growing sector of the economy, in line with its historical performance.
“Over the same period, its share of GDP has been stagnant at around 2 percent. The sector also contributes job opportunities for about 80 000 adults. Food security has become paramount since the onset of the corona virus pandemic,” the National Assembly said. The National Assembly said the Government realises the need to increase food production for products in which Botswana has a cooperative advantage such as beef, grains and other horticulture products.
The Committee on Finance, Trade and Economic Development has also been established. One of the mandates of Committee would be to exercise Parliamentary oversight and scrutiny over government ministries, departments and agencies with portfolio responsibilities in respect of Finance, Development, Trade and Industry.
“The sector is at the core of industrialisation aspirations and strategies for economic development in Botswana. Manufacturing in particular can be the driver of economic growth through technological improvements and innovation,” the National Assembly said. Hence, it said, the development of the sector could also foster export diversification and export led-growth in Botswana while benefitting from the African Continental Free Trade Area (AFCFTA).
Two senior members of Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC) have threatened legal action against Directorate of Intelligence and Security (DIS), it has transpired. The threat is contained in an answering affidavit of Director General of DCEC, Tymon Katlholo in which he is seeking an interdiction from High Court to stop the DIS from accessing investigation files at his office.
After the DIS detained DCEC officials Joao Salbany and Tsholofelo Bareetsi on December 16, 2021, they filed an official complaint against DIS and some officials. They complained about abuse of office by DIS and five officers. Salbany and Bareetsi also complained about unlawful detention by DIS and unlawful dissemination of classified information contrary to Section 44 of Corruption and Economic Crime Act. “The DIS interviews were premised on information divulged during the course of official DCEC work product, that is the Monday media brief meeting,” they wrote.
They further requested leave to institute a civil suit against the DIS and its officers, and invariably the State for inhuman and degrading treatment they suffered and unlawful detention. They also pondered a declaratory seeking a sanction against the DIS and Botswana Police Service (BPS) and clarification of the role of BPS officers seconded to DIS.
“The envisaged suit against BPS and DIS officers and the DIS will inevitably centre on investigations done by the DCEC and the scope of the protection availed to DCEC officers for conduct done in the course and scope of DCEC official duties.” The duo said it was self-evident from the conduct of the DIS officers that there was nothing urgent about the information required by the DIS, justifying their detention at its Sebele facility from 08:30 hours on December 16, 2021 until 02:00 hours on December 17, 2021.
They reasoned that the information required by the DIS could have been obtained by a simple request to DCEC Director General. “What the DIS did was to seek to intimidate officers of the DCEC whom they knew were carrying out investigations against some of the DIS officers who were part of their investigation team. This turn of events has a chilling effect not only on the functioning of the DCEC but also on the official conduct of officers of the DCEC as to how they conduct their official duties.”
They concluded by stating that in the event the request is granted, they would further request to be advised as to the provision of legal representation as the unalwful detention and the degrading and inhuman treatment by the DIS was in relation to matters conducted by and on behalf of the DCEC.