The SADC Observer Mission has noted areas of the electoral process that require improvement in Botswana. While declaring the 23rd October 2019 elections Free and Fair, the Mission also observed areas of the electoral process and system that require perfection.
Interestingly they also touched on the role of Traditional Leaders in politics urging the Government to institute national consultations to review the role that traditional leaders may play in politics given their current multiple roles. According to Lt. Gen. (Retired) Dr. Sibusiso Moyo, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Trade of the Republic Of Zimbabwe and Head of the SADC Electoral Observation Mission (SEOM), the Mission observed that traditional leaders, particularly the Chiefs, have multiple roles which include an overlap between executive, judicial, and legislative powers.
“Above this some traditional leaders are also politicians, and even where they are not politicians they exercise a significant influence in the political/voting choices of their subjects, which may not be desirable in the democratic context,” he said. The Mission also commented on counting of votes imploring that consideration should be given to amending the Electoral Act to make provision for polling station-based counting and displaying of results at the polling station.
“The Electoral Act provides for polling station-based voter registration and voting, and once polling is closed, for the transportation of ballot boxes to counting centres across the country. The Mission noted that this procedure exposes the ballot boxes to insecurity in the process of movements between polling stations and counting centres. The Mission noted that the Electoral Act does not make provision for the less risky and more transparent system whereby ballots are counted at each polling station and provisional results are posted outside polling stations for the benefit of all stakeholders,” observed Lt. Gen. (Retired) Dr. Sibusiso Moyo.
On the hot subject of Regulation of Political Parties funding, the Mission called on Government and all stakeholders to consider consultations on the possible regulation of political party financing, particularly in the context of regulating private foreign funding and the safeguards that may be adopted in the national interest. According to the SADC team, “the Electoral Act limits campaign expenditure to a maximum of P50,000 per candidate. In reality, however, the law and the limits imposed therein are not reflective of the existing dynamics observed in the current financing of political party campaign activities. The injection of foreign money has the potential to cause undue influence and external interference in domestic politics thereby compromising the sovereignty of the country.”
The Mission also urged the IEC is urged to enhance its communication with stakeholders and the public, especially by reviewing and updating the content on its information communication technology platforms. The Mission took note that given modern dependence on information and communication technology, access to critical electoral information from the IEC is generally limited. Furthermore, the Head of SOME said there is need for the IEC to develop and implement general standards on how the polling staff can assist and prioritise voters who require assistance, such as the disabled, elderly and expecting mothers.
They advised that polling stations should be located far from bars and other places where alcohol is consumed. The Mission also questioned the lack of use of indelible ink and of translucent ballot boxes. “The Government is urged to amend the Electoral Act to make provision for the use of indelible ink to minimise the possibility of double or multiple voting and the use of translucent ballot boxes to enhance the transparency of the electoral process.”
The SADC OEM touched on the issue of Voter registration and education. According to the Mission in order to improve voter registration and voter turn-out during elections, “the Government is urged to amend the Electoral Act in order to make provision for the continuous registration of voters up to the cut-off date before an election; and to legally mandate and financially empower the IEC to conduct voter education. In addition, the issue of voter apathy should be duly addressed by all stakeholders.
The Mission noted that the total population of Botswana is 2.2 million, of this 1,592, 350 are eligible voters and the IEC targeted to register 1,273, 880 voters. The actual figure achieved for the 2019 elections was 925, 478 registered voters. The total voter registrations in 2019 were marginally lower at 73%, than in 2014 where it was 77% of the total eligible voters. This is reflective of voter apathy.
“The Mission noted that the Electoral Act does not make provision for the continuous registration of voters up to the cut-off date before an election. Further, the IEC has no legal mandate to conduct voter education, and consequently lacks dedicated funding for this purpose; it is the observation of the Mission that more could have been done by the IEC and all relevant stakeholders in conducting voter education.”
On Gender representation the SADC Observer Mission called on all stakeholders and the Government are urged to take measures to address the gender imbalances in elected political positions, particularly at the level of the National Assembly. “Although this may require comprehensive constitutional amendments, political parties are also urged to take the lead and implement affirmative measures. This will be in conformity with the SADC Protocol on Gender and Development (2016) and the SADC Principles and Guidelines Governing Democratic Elections (2015).”
Giving background information on Gender representation Lt. Gen. (Retired) Dr. Sibusiso Moyo said while women account for 55% of registered voters in Botswana, the 2019 elections represent a downward shift in the representation of women in political leadership, particularly at the National Assembly level. “In the 2014 elections Botswana registered five female Members of Parliament, four of whom were elected at their constituencies, and one was specially elected. This brought the percentage of female parliamentarians after the 2014 elections to 8.7% of the total. Furthermore, in the 2014 elections, out of a total of 192 Parliamentary candidates, 17 were female, representing 8.9%,” he said.
He noted that in 2019, however, only 11 out of 210 Parliamentary candidates were women, representing 5% of the total, which demonstrates a downward shift from the gains of 2014. This requires national reflection to address the gender imbalance in politics, he observed. The SEOM observed that the pre-election and voting phases of the 2019 General Elections were well organised and were conducted in a peaceful and free atmosphere, and the environment enabled the voters to express themselves in a transparent manner.
“The Mission commends the IEC for the professional manner in which they conducted the elections, and the people of Botswana for the political maturity demonstrated during the electoral process. The Mission urges Batswana to maintain this spirit until the conclusion of the process when the results of the elections are announced, and after, and to implement the above recommendations in preparation for the next electoral cycle.”
Despite being hailed and still regarded as a hero who saved many lives through his decision to crash the BF5 fighter Jet around the national stadium on the eve of the 2018 BDF day, the deceased Pilot, Major Clifford Manyuni’s actions were treated as a letdown within the army, especially by his master-Commander of the Air Arm, Major General Innocent Phatshwane.
Manyuni’s master says he was utterly disappointed with his Pilot’s failure to perform “simple basics.”
Manyuni was regarded as a hero through social media for his ‘colourful exploits’, but Phatshwane who recently retired as the Air Arm Commander, revealed to WeekendPost in an exclusive interview that while he appreciated Batswana’s outpouring of emotions and love towards his departed Pilot, he strongly felt let down by the Pilot “because there was nothing wrong with that Fighter Jet and Manyuni did not report any problem either.”
The deceased Pilot, Manyuni was known within the army to be an upwardly mobile aviator and in particular an air power proponent.
“I was hurt and very disappointed because nobody knows why he decided to crash a well-functioning aircraft,” stated Phatshwane – a veteran pilot with over 40 years of experience under the Air Arm unit.
Phatshwane went on to express shock at Manyuni’s flagrant disregard for the rules of the game, “they were in a formation if you recall well and the guiding principle in that set-up is that if you have any problem, you immediately report to the formation team leader and signal a break-away from the formation.
Manyuni disregarded all these basic rules, not even to report to anybody-team members or even the barracks,” revealed Phatshwane when engaged on the much-publicised 2018 incident that took the life of a Rakops-born Pilot of BDF Class 27 of 2003/2004.
Phatshwane quickly dismisses the suggestion that perhaps the Fighter Jet could have been faulty, “the reasons why I am saying I was disappointed is that the aircraft was also in good condition and well-functioning. It was in our best interest to know what could have caused the accident and we launched a wholesale post-accident investigation which revealed that everything in the structure was working perfectly well,” he stated.
Phatshwane continued: “we thoroughly assessed the condition of the engine of the aircraft as well as the safety measures-especially the ejection seat which is the Pilot’s best safety companion under any life-threatening situation. All were perfectly functional.”
In aircrafts, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft in an emergency. The seat is propelled out of the aircraft by an explosive charge or rocket motor, carrying the pilot with it.”
Manyuni knew about all these safety measures and had checked their functionality prior to using the Aircraft as is routine practice, according to Phatshwane. Could Manyuni have been going through emotional distress of some sort? Phatshwane says while he may never really know about that, what he can say is that there are laid out procedures in aviation guiding instances of emotional instability which Manyuni also knew about.
“We don’t allow or condone emotionally or physically unfit Pilots to take charge of an aircraft. If a Pilot feels unfit, he reports and requests to be excused. We will subsequently shift the task to another Pilot. We do this because we know the risks of leaving an unfit pilot to fly an aircraft,” says Phatshwane.
Despite having happened a day before the BDF day, Phatshwane says the BDF day mishap did not really affect the BDF day preparations, although it emotionally distracted Manyuni’s flying formation squad a bit, having seen him break away from the formation to the stone-hearted ground. The team soldiered on and immediately reported back to base for advice and way forward, according to Phatshwane.
Sharing the details of the ordeal and his Pilots’ experiences, Phatshwane said: “they (pilots) were in distress, who wouldn’t? They were especially hurt by the deceased‘s lack of communication. I immediately called a chaplain to attend to their emotional needs.
He came and offered them counselling. But soldiers don’t cry, they immediately accepted that a warrior has been called, wiped off their tears and instantly reported back for duty. I am sure you saw them performing miracles the following day at the BDF day as arranged.”
Despite the matter having attracted wide publicity, the BDF kept the crash details a distance away from the public, a move that Phatshwane felt was not in the best interest of the army and public.
“The incident attracted overwhelming public attention. Not only that, there were some misconceptions attached to the incident and I thought it was upon the BDF to come out and address those for the benefit of the public and army’s reputation,” he said.
One disturbing narrative linked to the incident was that Manyuni heroically wrestled the ‘faulty’ aircraft away from the endangered public to die alone, a narrative which Phatshwane disputes as just people’s imaginations. “Like I said the Aircraft was functioning perfectly,” he responded.
A close family member has hinted that the traumatised Manyuni family, at the time of their son’s tragedy, strongly accused the BDF ‘of killing their son’. Phatshwane admits to this development, emphasising that “Manyuni’s mother was visibly and understandably in inconsolable pain when she uttered those words”.
Phatshwane was the one who had to travel to Rakops through the Directorate of Intelligence Services (DIS) aircraft to deliver the sad news to the family but says he found the family already in the know, through social media. At the time of his death, Manyuni was survived by both parents, two brothers, a sister, fiancée and one child. He was buried in Rakops in an emotionally-charged burial. Like his remains, the BDF fighter jets have been permanently rested.
A matter in which former President Lt Gen Ian Khama had brought before Broadhurst Police Station in Gaborone, requesting the State to charge Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC) lead investigator, Jako Hubona and others with perjury has been committed to Headquarters because it involves “elders.”
Broadhurst Police Station Commander, Obusitswe Lokae, told this publication this week that the case in its nature is high profile so the matter has been allocated to his Officer Commanding No.3 District who then reported to the Divisional Commander who then sort to commit it to Police Headquarters.