Directorate of Intelligence and Security Services (DIS) onetime Queen, Wilhelminah ‘Butterfly’ Maswabi, is languishing in jail after she was denied bail by the Gaborone High Court. The State has advanced arguments that she is a high flight risk and her covert training as a DIS Operative puts her at an advantage to temper with evidence and scupper the case.
Maswabi is facing three criminal charges of financing terrorism, possession of unexplained property and false declaration for passports. On Financing Terrorism, this is a charge which on its own carries life imprisonment which the State prosecutors say could be a motivating factor for one not to stand trial and flee the jurisdiction which will delay the proceedings and evidence against her to be compromised.
The state, represented by Priscilla Israel, told the court that carrying different passports was a clear indication of abuse power of which she carried diplomatic passports which allowed her easy access. “If granted bail and before the money is frozen and or restrained there is high likelihood that she will temper with the State's evidence and endeavour to recover the syphoned money that we believe belongs the State,” Israel explained.
According to the State, “There is reasonable evidence that the applicant is likely to be convicted on all the charges filed against her.” Maswabi is accused of holding US390 million in her personal account and that she has at some point transferred P29 million to former DIS Director General, Isaac Kgosi. The transfer occurred shortly after Kgosi had made remarks that he will “topple this Government”, when he was arrested at the Sir Seretse Khama International Airport.
During the bail hearing, the prosecution pleaded with the judge do a balancing exercise between the interest of the individuals and those of the prosecution and the public in general. “If the applicant is granted bail the state and the public in general will be prejudiced in that, the applicant is trained to counter, to infiltrate and intercept in dealing with computer related activities.” In the DPP view, “taking all the factors into consideration – that is the seriousness of the offences charged coupled with their sentences this is a high motivation for one to flee the course of justice.”
“Furthermore, the integrity of evidence and money syphoned from the State accounts, we humbly submit that the public interest outweighs the interest of an individual, therefore, we pray that the application before this honourable court is without merits and the public interest should be taken into consideration and the application be dismissed.” Offering emphasis on why ‘Butterfly’ is a high flight risk and may temper with evidence, the DPP said she is an employee of the Directorate of Intelligence and Security Services and she has been trained as a covert officer which includes among other things interception, hacking and any operations in the cyber space.
The DPP argued that it is in the interest of justice that Maswabi be remanded in custody pending the completion of the case. “Furthermore, it is believed that the applicant is co-conspirator in the syphoning of the Government funds, the matter which is still under investigation and it is believed that she has access to the offs h ore accounts which our primary investigations are believed to have been linked to the money syphoned from the Government funds.”
The DPP made claims that Maswabi “is believed to be a long-time girlfriend of a Mr Isaac Seabelo Kgosi who is a fugitive of justice, and his who his whereabouts are still unknown to the State and there is evidence that the Ap p licant knows where Mr Kgosi is as she has transferred money to him on several occasions.”
The 46-year-old former spy agent shuddered the court when the Directorate of Public Prosecution revealed that she has a lump sum of U$390 million in her personal account. She has travelled to 18 European countries, 17 African Countries, 5 Asian countries and 13 Indonesian countries. “Butterfly” has over 5 passports in her name of which 4 were returned because they were full.
Butterfly is also alleged to be the signatory to the accounts that were used to transfer money some of which was in the sum of P48 million. Israel revealed to the court that the USD 48 million that went into that account was transferred to four different accounts of which two of the accounts the applicant is a signatory to. The two companies are alleged to have 17 different accounts which have 10 billion pula. She further clarified that these are offshore accounts.
THE STATE IS BLUFFING – MASWABI
In their heads of submission, Mack emphasized that the State should provide evidence, if they have any against the accused. He dismissed that the courts cannot be dwelling on cases on suspicion instead of facts. “We demand to see a statement [affidavit] from Bank of Botswana to confirm that an account was created and to ensure that indeed they do exist. No signatures reflect on the documents they claim to have, so how do they tell the courts that the owner of the signatures is the accused,” Mack said.
Mack elaborated that they have no knowledge of which account holds the alleged U$2.9 million, neither do they know who the holder of the account is because the state has not brought any evidence before them. “There is no proof that the Applicant is a signatory to 17 bank accounts as suggested by the State and where bank accounts are. There is no proof that the Applicant was involved in any of the alleged transactions as depicted in Annexures E, D and X. In fact, the said documents are highly suspicious as they do not show their origin, author and they are not signed,” he said.
The applicant’s attorney also made the courts aware that despite her arrest there is no evidence from the South African immigration dealing with alleged pseudo passports. Mack said the second leg deals with the Application for bail in terms of the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act, in particular, Section 113 as read with Section 114 – The likelihood of the accused not standing trial; The accused interfering with investigations; or The proper administration of justice.
According to Mack if there is no likelihood of the accused failing to stand trial or interfering with investigation, then they must be admitted on bail. “The onus is on the State, if it opposes the granting of bail, to prove on a balance of probabilities that, either the accused is a flight risk or will interfere with investigations. Cogent evidence and not mere suspicion is required to convince the Court that one should not be released on bail,” he said.
Mack said in the present case, no evidence, has been provided by the State that the Applicant is actually a flight risk or that she will interfere with investigations. He admitted that at least one charge is serious, being the charge pertaining to Financing Terrorism. However he said what is critical at this stage is what evidence has been led to support the charges. He further observed that it is common cause that at this stage, the evidence placed before the Court in this regard would merely need to be prima facie and not necessarily conclusive.
“As regards the possible prejudice that the State would suffer if the Applicant is granted bail, it is submitted that none exists. If it does, it has not been set out. All that has been stated is that the Applicant will access money by means of cyber but no connection has been proved between the Applicant and any money or any bank account,” said Mack. He said Maswabi is a Motswana and the evidence led by the State does not suggest that she holds any foreign passport. “The evidence does not suggest that the Applicant is in possession of more than one valid passport.”
Botswana Football Association (BFA) leadership appears to be bowing down to Nicolas Zakhem’s football pressure. The development comes to the open roughly 24 hours after the Gaborone United director publicly labelled Maclean Letshwiti and his committee failures for deciding to chop five premier league clubs under the pretext of club licensing disqualification.
As early as Wednesday noon, the BFA emergency committee met with one agenda item to discuss the possibility of reinstating the clubs. This publication gathers that the committee saw it fit to pardon the five clubs without entertaining a second thought. The committee even invited the clubs to the meeting, sources say.
Late last month, the five teams were disqualified from playing in the premier league, pending the appeal outcome. The teams are Notwane, Extension Gunners, BR Highlanders, Mogoditshane Fighters, together with Gilport Lions. The immediate decision by BFA follows what Zakhem had said and advised that it was wrong to chop clubs given the COVID-19 situation in the country.
Unbeknownst to BFA leadership, observers stress that Zakhem exerted public pressure and influenced them to change tone without asking. At the meeting, BFA president Maclean Letshwiti, his vices, Marshlow Motlogelwa and Masego Ntshingane, Aryl Ralebala, the Botswana Football League (BFL) chairman, together with Alec Fela, an ordinary member in the now stubborn NEC.
However, the reactive move by the association to reinstate the clubs is highly welcomed in certain quarters, but it also appears to have left a permanent scar, especially at BFL. As things stand, the general feeling on the ground is to oust chairman Ralebala for failing to defend these clubs before the eyes of President Letshwiti.
This publication has intercepted an ongoing petition to unseat Ralebala and his deputies from the BFL board. Strange enough, the signed petition has thus far attracted clubs with household influence in the league itself. GU, Township Rollers, Notwane, Extension Gunners, Police XI are some clubs that have already appended their signatures to have Ralebala removed.
The big clubs are believed to fighting for principle and demand fair governance at BFL. The reality is that these clubs command a large following, and sponsors can always have a say based on their presence.
When approached for clarity, Ralebala said he could not comment on allegations or issues that lack substance. He concedes that he has heard about the rolling petition but is yet to lay his eyes on it. “I have heard about the petition, but I don’t know where it is coming from. I think it is best you ask those who have signed it. My focus is to commence the league and make sure everything is on point,” said Ralebala.
Football observers state that Ralebala, together with Letshwiti, are now faced with a dilemma. Reports coming from Lekidi Football Centre, although yet to be fabricated, are that the big guns lead others to form a parallel structure where they will play on their league. The clubs are angry at their chairman for taking many of the instructions from the BFA boss, and already a general melee is gathering traction that the two must resign as football has lost direction.
Zakhem says, although he supported Letshwiti, he has a sense of duty to stand for the truth. “I knew I supported Letshwiti and his troops, but you see, these guys have lost direction. I have long advised them that chopping clubs like this will cause confusion and delay progress, but they cannot listen. Letshwiti gave BFL autonomy, but I do not know why he is still interfering,” Zakhem said.
You may, by now, have heard about the dark side of the high profile P100 billion case, but wait, there is also the brighter side. Staff Writer AUBREY LUTE explores the positives accruing from the fall of the country’s biggest financial ‘scam-dal’.
A chance to fix the country’s financial record
They have not publicly been saying it, but the state agencies and the President, Dr Mokgweetsi Masisi, have been at pains to explain and rationalise how an amount almost equal to the country’s GPD left the central bank.
Many insiders attributed the country‘s troubled financial status to the case, including the grey-listing, non-compliance and identified deficiencies, some of which were hitting citizens around the globe. Botswana was in 2018 taken aback by FATF news that the country has been listed alongside countries that do not comply with (AML/CFT). The European Union Commission later flagged Botswana in March 2019 for lacking strategic deficiencies in AML/CFT regulations.
A chance to restore the dignity of the law enforcement arms
The case, without a doubt, was a distraction object on the law enforcement agencies, which spent a chunk of their time bickering and finger-pointing. A leaked audio recording exposing the explosive meeting of the law enforcement arms of government, being the Intelligence Services, Corruption and Economic Crimes agency, and the Prosecutions division summed it all.
The case presented a monumental crisis threatening the core of their being. Following these developments, the Presidency, clearly under the influence of a tripartite member, took a spine-chilling decision to disband the DCEC, a move that was saved by the organisation’s founding director- Tymon Katlholo’s bold protest.
The DPP, the Police, and the DCEC staff were used in the process to carry out bizarre instructions, some of which left the state with an egg on its face. Mistrust and backstabbing were the order of the day within the law enforcement agencies, and the P100 billion case was to blame. “Some badly wanted the plot executed while the other side badly wanted it to end to restore sanity,” an insider says.
The source further adds that “if the case did not end soon, it was going to end a lot of people’s relationships and careers because those who refused to carry the insane instructions were seen as sympathisers to former President Ian Khama.” With the case having fallen, these agencies can reflect, reconcile and go back to work.
A chance to fix diplomatic relations…
It was not only South Africa that was accused of Sabotaging Botswana’s prosecutorial goal. The state also accused several countries of refusing or delaying to assist in the process. Of all the nations, only South Africa has decided to take Botswana to task, perhaps on its proximity to Botswana. Others long ignored Botswana’s requests for assistance to the frustration of former DPP deputy director who repeatedly told the courts that they were struggling to get responses from the international community. With the case having fallen, Botswana may get a chance to face her actions, apologise and rectify the promise that lessons have been learnt.
Pressure off the shoulders of those who have to account…
The case did not only affect the law enforcement agencies. All the stakeholders were put in the spotlight to provide answers. The first to bolt out of the circle was the central bank, Moses Pelaelo, who, like DCEC director-general, long declared the case a scam. He told the world that his books were in order and that no money was missing risking his high-paying job.
According to insiders, his superiors, the then Minister of Finance and Development Planning – Dr Matsheka and his subordinate, Dr Wildfred Mandlebe, were only whispering, without success, to the Gods that there is no money missing.
So concerned and under pressure was Dr Sethibe- then the head of the Financial Intelligence Agency- who, like his Ministry supervisors, was engaging in silent screams to warn the powers that be, all in vain. He later jumped the ship to his former employer, the University of Botswana, allegedly to protect his name and career.
At the time of the fall of the case, the DIS and the DPP were at advanced plans to higher American to come and probe the Bank of Botswana’s servers in a move that bankers feared could compromise them further.
The case was bleeding the country’s coffers…
Had it not ended, the case was likely to end up ‘genuinely’ costing the country P100 billion Pula duo to its complexity and challenges. Insiders say sources who had sold the law enforcement agencies some falsified documents were paid handsomely.
Moreover, investigations were costly as they involved the international community and frequent travelling. “We are told there was also motivation for some officers to act abysmally and out of their way,” an insider said.
Lessons leant for public officers…
Public officers are often duty-bound to obey superiors instructions, no matter how irrational. The case was an eye-opener to many public officers that principle pays in the discharge of one’s duty at all times. The professional careers of the P100 billion case conspirators are currently in shambles. And as expected, the influencers, if at all there any, are nowhere to be seen.
Botswana remains on the grey list of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and the “black list” of the European Union, a status quo that highlights the country as one of the high-risk jurisdictions to deal with money.
The far-reaching implications of these listings is a compromised Foreign Direct Investment drive for Botswana. In particular, these listings mean investors now have to exercise some caution and restrain when thinking about putting their money in Botswana. On Tuesday, Minister of Finance and Economic Development Peggy Serame said that Botswana could see itself out of the “undesirable listing” by October this year.
Serame called for united and concerted efforts towards liberating Botswana out of this financial noncompliance tag. She said the delisting could be archived by concerted efforts from all stakeholders: players in the financial services sector, non-financial services businesses, regulators, and every individual who deals with transactions.
Botswana is a founding member of the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG). This regional body subscribes to the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) to combat money laundering and financing of terrorism and proliferation.
One of the membership obligations to ESAAMLG is for Botswana to be peer-reviewed by the other Member States and other international bodies like the World Bank, IMF or FATF. The most recent assessment for Botswana to gauge compliance with the FATF standards was conducted by ESAAMLG in 2016 and culminated with publishing the Mutual Evaluation Report (MER) in 2017.
Following the discussion and adoption by the Task Force and approval of the MER by the Council of Ministers, the country was placed under enhanced follow-up. This led to a one (1) year observation period in which the country was expected to improve its technical compliance (legislative framework) by correcting the deficiencies identified in the MER.
After one year, in October 2018, the Task Force decided that the country was not taking sufficient steps to implement the recommendations made by the assessors in the MER. The Task Force recommended that Botswana be referred to the International Cooperation Review Group (ICRG) for monitoring and potential listing often referred to as the ‘FATF greylisting”.
Following the FATF greylisting, the EU placed Botswana on its list of high-risk third countries, often referred to as the ‘black list.’ In 2018, Botswana and FATF agreed to an Action Plan that had six items with several timelines. In terms of Risk and coordination, Botswana was told to develop and implement a risk-based comprehensive national AML/CFT strategy, assess the risks associated with legal persons, legal arrangements, and NPOs, and operationalize the modernized company registry to obtain and maintain essential information and Ultimate Beneficial Ownership information.
Botswana was further advised to enhance the capacity of the supervisory staff, including by developing risk-based supervision manuals and providing adequate training, implement risk-based AML/CFT supervision and impose sanctions against violations.
Furthermore, Botswana was instructed to improve analysis and dissemination of financial intelligence by the Financial Intelligence Unit, including operationalizing an online Suspicious Transactions Report filing platform and prioritizing high-risk predicate crimes, and enhancing the use of financial intelligence among the relevant law enforcement agencies.
Regarding terrorism financing investigation, Botswana was instructed to develop and implement a Counter Financing of Terrorism Strategy, operationalize the Counter-Terrorism Analysis and Fusion Centre, and ensure the Terrorism Financing investigation capacity of the law enforcement agencies.
In 2018, the 11th Parliament passed 25 pieces and, later, six others related to AML/CFT/CFP. At the just ended Parliamentary session of the 12th Parliament, lawmakers passed the Financial Intelligence (Amendment) Act to address the definition of beneficial ownership.
Cabinet approved the National AML/CFT/CFP Strategy of 2019-2024 in October 2019. At the June 2021 FATF Plenary meetings, the FATF made the initial determination that Botswana had substantially addressed the Action Plan and that this warranted an on-site assessment to verify that the implementation of Botswana’s AML/CFT/CFP reforms is in place and is being sustained. Furthermore, an assessment was to be instituted to check if the necessary political commitment remains to sustain implementation in the future.
Serame said in a televised press briefing that Botswana’s exit from the FATF grey list and the EU black list would be determined by the outcome of the on-site assessment, which will be discussed at the FATF Plenary in October 2021.
She revealed that the Botswana delegation attended the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group 42nd Task Force of Senior Officials meeting from the 26th August to the 6th September 2021, followed by the Council of Ministers on the 7th September 2021.
She told the media that at these meetings, Botswana was commended for making progress in complying with the FATF standards by addressing deficiencies in her AML/CFT/CFP framework. “We are making all these efforts of complying with the FATF standards so that we guard against our financial system being used for money laundering, terrorism financing and proliferation financing,” she said.
“We are hopeful that at the October 2021 FATF Plenary meetings, the outcome of the on-site visit undertaken by the FATF in August 2021 will bear positive results, leading to Botswana being delisted from the FATF greylisting,” she said. However, Minister Serame called on all stakeholders to support the government to remove Botswana from the greylisting.
“As Government continues its efforts of putting in place the necessary legislative and institutional framework, due diligence must be exercised by all institutions, including the ordinary Motswana, so that no one is found dealing with financiers whose credibility is wanting,” she said.
The minister reiterated that all players in the financial services sector had a role to play: “It is important that where unsolicited funds are offered, the individual or entity so receiving the offer must ensure that the funds being offered are not associated with unlawful acts. If we are not diligent, criminals may use unsuspecting people and entities to launder proceeds of crime.”
She reiterated that the government is committed to doing all within its power to remove the country from the FATF “grey list” and the EU “black list”. However, she noted that to achieve that requires the cooperation and assistance of financial institutions, designated non-financial businesses and professions and individuals to ensure full compliance with AML/CFT/CFP rules and regulations.
“These efforts will not only assist us to be removed from these mentioned lists but are for the benefit of our country to maintain a high standard of financial prudence and an economy which genuine investors can have the confidence to invest in,” Serame explained.