Diamond-producing countries in Africa, including Botswana, in 2018 received a total of US$8.1 billion translating to 9.5 percent of the total global revenue of US$85.9 billion generated from the sale of diamond jewellery.â€¨â€¨
This was announced by the World Diamond Council (WDC) president, Stephane Fischler ahead of the 2019 Kimberley Process plenary meeting, which will be held in New Delhi, India next week.â€¨â€¨He said although some countries in Africa had considered the amount they received as insufficient, the economic potential of the diamond resource whose value increased by five as it travelled from the mine to the retail jeweler, was indisputable.â€¨â€¨
"Diamond deposits hold the promise of a better future for all African producing countries, and more specifically for the communities living in areas where they are located," Fischler said.â€¨â€¨He added; "To realise this promise, those mining the product need to receive fair value for their labour and capital investment, and an appropriate proportion of revenues generated must be used to create sustainable economic and social opportunities at the grassroots level.
"â€¨Fischler said the long-term developmental for the potential of the product to be realised, diamonds must continue to be an aspirational purchase for buyers.â€¨â€¨"Because they can live without diamonds, they will only buy them if they want to. There were 10 million Africans whose income depended on continuing demand for diamond jewellery in consuming countries. Reputation, therefore, is a key element, and defending that reputation is of paramount importance.
If the integrity of the diamond is undermined, so is the economic potential of the product," he said.â€¨â€¨Turning to the 2019 Kimberley Process plenary meeting to be held next week in India, Fischer stressed on the importance of progress being made in strengthening the scope of the Kimberly Process certification scheme, as part of the three-year review and reform cycle that was ending this month.â€¨â€¨"More specifically, we are talking about amending the definition of conflict diamonds so that it better enables us to provide an assurance that the trade in rough diamonds cannot fund the types of systemic violence being seen in certain diamond-mining areas today," he said.â€¨â€¨
The WDC president also announced that the WDC was rolling out a new System of Warranties (SOW), which "has scope that goes significantly beyond that of the Kimberly Process."â€¨â€¨"The new system will require members of the industry to include on all invoices and memo documents that they adhere to the WDC guidelines. The guidelines include reference to international conventions relating to human and labour rights, anti-corruption and anti-money laundering," he said.â€¨â€¨Organisers involved in to the build-up to the KP plenary meeting said they were experiencing 'whirlwind days' ahead of the event.
The meeting will start on November 18 and end on November 22. With a range of critical issues yet to be resolved, delegates to the plenary meeting are currently sharing and promoting last minute positions during bilateral meetings in different parts of the world and strategically scheduled conferences, attended by many of the key players in the diamond industry. Some of the meetings held to date include the Russia-Africa Summit which took place in Sochi, Russia last month and the diamond conference held in Gaborone early this month.â€¨
"The final minutes are on the clock for the Kimberley Process's three-year review and reform cycle, which began in 2016 and will end at the plenary meeting under chairmanship of India. Some tough discussions will take place, as difficult decisions need to be made – none more so than whether the scope of the Kimberley Process certification scheme will be strengthened," the WDC said in a statement released this week.â€¨"At the heart of the debate is the definition of what constitutes a 'conflict diamond'.
Currently, it is unchanged from the launch of the Kimberley Process certification scheme in 2003. This means that only diamonds whose proceeds are fuelling civil war against legitimate Governments are targeted. Recognising the outdated definition, the WDC, together with the civil society and many Government representatives, are insisting that it should be amended to include instances of unacceptable violence in the supply chain during peacetime as well," WDC said.â€¨â€¨Other proposals submitted by Botswana and Russia are on the table. â€¨â€¨
The Kimberley Process plenary meetings bring together under its umbrella, industry, human rights activists and Governments from both the developed and developing world. It has succeeded in enforcing tough policies in the past.â€¨â€¨"But will it be able to rise to the occasion once again, or will it be hamstrung by the Kimberley Process members' short-term political interests? While we are active on all committees and subcommittees, when the time comes to vote, only Government members have the right to do so," noted the WDC.â€¨â€¨
"While we do not have the final say on the future scope of the Kimberley Process certification scheme, we most definitely are able to set responsible industry standards for the goods reaching the market. This goes beyond the Kimberley Process' currently limited 'conflict diamonds' definition, expressly referencing international conventions relating to human and labour rights â€¨â€¨"The question is whether, after New Delhi, all participants in the tripartite coalition will be travelling together and at the same speed. One way or another, the 2019 Kimberly Process plenary will represent a watershed moment for the industry," said WDC.
The partnership between Debswana and Botswana Oil Limited (BOL) which was announced a fortnight ago will create under 100 direct jobs, and scores of job opportunities for citizens in the value chain activities.
In a major milestone, Debswana and BOL jointly announced that the fuel supply to Debswana, which was in the past serviced by foreign companies, will now be reserved for citizen companies. The total value of the project is P8 billion, spanning a period of five years.
“About 88 direct jobs will be created through the partnership. These include some jobs which will be transferred from the current supplier to the new partnership,” Matida Mmipi, Head of Stakeholder Relations at Botswana Oil, told BusinessPost.
“We believe this partnership will become a blueprint for other citizen initiatives, even in other sectors of the economy. Furthermore, this partnership has succeeded in unlocking opportunities that never existed for ordinary citizens who aspire to grow and do business with big companies like Debswana.”
Mmipi said through this partnership, BOL and Debswana intend to impact citizen owned companies in the fuel supply value chain that include transportation, supply, facilities maintenance, engineering, customs clearance, trucks stops and its support activities such as workshop / maintenance, tyre services, truck wash bays among others.
“The number of companies to be on-boarded will be determined by the economics at the time of engagement,” she said. BOL will play a facilitatory role of handholding and assisting emerging citizen-owned fuel supply and fuel transportation companies to supply Debswana’s Jwaneng and Orapa Letlhakane Damtshaa (OLDM) mines with diesel and petrol for their operations.
“BOL expects to increase citizen companies’ market share in the fuel supply and transportation industries, which have over the years been dominated by foreign-owned suppliers. Consequently, the agreement will also ensure security of supply for Debswana operations, which are a mainstay of the Botswana economy,” Mmipi said.
“Furthermore, BOL will, under this agreement, transfer skills to citizen suppliers and transporters during the contract period and ensure delivery of competent and skilled citizen suppliers and transport companies upon completion of the agreement.”
Mmipi said the capacitating by BOL is limited to providing citizen companies oil industry technical capability and capacity to deliver on the requirements of the contract, when asked on helping citizen companies to access funding.
“BOL’s mandate does not include financing citizen empowerment initiatives. Securing funding will remain the responsibility of the beneficiaries. This could be through government financing entities including CEDA or through commercial banks. Further to this, there are financial institutions that have already signed up to support the Debswana Citizen Economic Empowerment Programme (CEEP),” Mmipi indicated.
While BOL is established by government as company limited by guarantee, it will not benefit financially from the partnership with Debswana, as citizen empowerment in the petroleum value chain is core to BOL’s mandate.
“BOL does not pursue citizen facilitation for financial benefit, but rather we engage in citizen facilitation as a social aspect of our mandate. Citizen facilitation comes at a cost, but it is the right thing to do for the country to develop the oil and gas industry,” she said.
Mmipi said supplying fuel to Debswana comes with commercial benefits such as supply margins. These have traditionally been made outside the country when supply was done by multi-nationals for a period spanning over 50 years. With BOL anchoring supply for Debswana, this benefit will accrue locally, and BOL will be able to pay taxes and dividends to the shareholders in Botswana.
PwC Africa has presented the eighth edition of the VAT in Africa Guide – Africa re-emerging. This backdrop of renewal informs on the re-emergence of African economies and societies which have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
In this edition, which has been compiled by PwC Africa’s indirect tax experts, covers a total of 41 African countries. It is geared towards sharing insight with our clients based on the constantly changing tax environments that can have a significant impact on business operations.
Within Africa, governments continue to focus on expanding the tax net by improving revenue collection through efficient compliance systems and procedures. PwC Africa has observed that revenue authorities also continue to take a keen interest in indirect taxes as part of revenue mobilisation initiatives.
Maturing VAT system and upskilling SARS
“In South Africa, VAT is becoming more relevant as a revenue source for the government,” says Matthew Besanko, PwC South Africa’s Indirect Tax Leader. “Strides have been made to upskill South African Revenue Service (SARS) staff and identify VAT revenue leakages, particularly in respect of foreign suppliers of electronic services to people and businesses in South Africa.”
Broadening the tax base and digital economy
In the past year, South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe saw updates to their VAT legislation, or introduced specific legislation targeting electronically supplied services (ESS), which is in line with the global trend of attempting to tax the digital economy. “The expectation is that Botswana will also introduce VAT legislation in due course, while the National Treasury in South Africa has also made mention of revising the rules to account for further developments in the digital economy,” Besanko says.
South Africa’s National Treasury has also drafted legislation with the intention to introduce a reverse charge on gold, which is expected to come into effect later in 2022. While in Zimbabwe, revenue authorities have introduced a tax on the export of raw medicinal cannabis ranging between 10% and 20%, which came into effect on 1 January 2021.
ESG and carbon tax
Key strides have also been made within the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) space. “ESG leadership, strategising and reporting is essential now for organisations that wish to flourish and remain relevant,” Kabochi says. He adds that companies need to consider how ESG and tax intersect, since tax is a significant value driver when businesses need to deliver on their ESG goals.
In South Africa, a carbon tax regime, which is being implemented in three phases, has been adopted. The second phase was scheduled to start in January 2023, however phase one was extended by three years until 31 December 2025.
Until then, taxpayers will enjoy substantial tax-free allowances which reduce their carbon tax liability. At the beginning of 2022, the South African government increased the carbon tax rate to R144 (about US$9), which is expected to increase annually to enable South Africa to uphold its COP26 commitments.
With effect from 1 January 2023, carbon tax payers in South Africa will also be required to submit carbon budgets and adhere to the provisions of the carbon budgeting system which will be governed by the Climate Change Bill. Where set carbon budgets are exceeded, the government plans to impose penalties. “At PwC, we are continuously focused on our renewed global strategy, ” The New Equation,” Kabochi says. “Through this strategy, a key focus area for PwC Africa is to support clients in adding value to their ESG ambitions and building trust through sustained outcomes.”
The New Equation is also an acknowledgement of the fundamental changes in the business environment in which PwC’s clients and other stakeholders operate. PwC continues to reinvent and adapt to these changes as a community of problem solvers, combining knowledge and human-led technology to deliver quality services and value.
Local and international economists have lowered their projections on Botswana’s economic growth for 2022 and 2023, saying the country is highly likely to fail to maintain high growth rate recorded in 2021 hence will not reach initial forecasts.
Economists this week lowered 2022 forecasts for Botswana’s economic growth rate, from the initial 5.3% to 4.8% and added that in 2023 growth could further decline to 4.0%. The lower projections come on the backdrop of an annual economic growth that recovered sharply in 2021 with figures showing that year-on-year real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth increased to 11.4%, up from a contraction of 8.7% in 2020.
Economists from the local research entity, E-consult, this week stated that the 2021 double digit growth that exceeded projections made at the time of the 2022 budget may be short lived due to other developments taking place in the global economy. E-consult Economist Sethunya Kegakgametse stated that the war in Ukraine has worsened supply problems in the global economy and added that before the war, macroeconomic indicators were seen as improving and returning to pre-COVID levels.
According to the economist the global economy was projected to improve in 2022 and 2023. Recent figures show that global growth projections have been revised downwards from the initial forecast of 4.9% in 2022 with the World Bank’s new estimate for global growth in 2022 at 3.2%.
The statistics also shows that International Monetary Fund revised their growth projections for 2022 and 2023 down by 0.8% and 0.2% respectively, falling to 3.6% for both years. “The outbreak of war has severely dampened the global recovery that was under way following the COVID-19 pandemic,” said the economist.
She stated that despite Botswana being geographically removed from the conflict, the country has not and will not be exempt from the disruptions in the global economy. “The disruptions to global supply chains resulting from the war will have a negative effect on both Botswana’s growth and trade activities.
The economic sanctions against diamonds from Russia will add uncertainty to the market which will have knock on effects to Botswana’s growth, exports, and government revenues,” said the economists who added that the disruptions are driving prices up and result with very high inflation in the local economy.
Kegakgametse projected that in an attempt to limit inflation Bank of Botswana will be forced to raise interest rate “Should the sharp increase in both global and local inflation persist, Bank of Botswana much like other central banks around the world will be forced to raise interest rates in a bid to control rising prices. This would mean an end to the expansionary monetary policy stance that had been adopted post COVID-19 to aid economic growth,” she said.
In the latest projections, the UK based economic research entity Fitch Solutions lowered 2022 real GDP growth forecast for Botswana from 5.3% to 4.8% “In 2023, we see economic growth rate decelerating to 4.0%,” said Fitch Solutions economists who also noted that the 2022 and 2023 economic growth projections may come out lower than the current forecasts, as it is possible that new vaccine-resistant virus variants may be identified, which could result in the re-implementation of restrictions. “In such circumstances, we cannot rule out that Botswana’s economy may post weaker growth than our baseline scenario currently assumes,” said the economists.
According to the projections, Fitch Solution stated that there is limited scope for Botswana government to increase diamond production and exports, following the economic sanctions imposed on Russian diamond mining companies operating in Botswana. The research entity added that De Beers is unlikely to scale up diamond output from Botswana in order to prop up diamond prices.