Food and nutrition security is an outcome of developmental factors such as access to land, credit, education and employment, as well as access to affordable agricultural inputs such as fertilizer, water and seeds. Gender inequalities, the HIV/AIDS pandemic, natural disasters and climate change all contribute in compounding ways.
According to Synthesis Report on the State of Food and Nutrition Security and Vulnerability in Southern Africa 2019, about 41.2 million people in 13 countries are estimated to have been food insecure in the 2019 consumption year. When comparing the 11 Member States that provided data in 2018 and 2019, food security increased by 28%. It is also 7.4% higher than it was during the severe El Nino-induced drought of 2016 and 2017.
The report says significant increases in the number of people food insecure from 2018 have been recorded in Zambia at 144 per cent, Zimbabwe 128%, Eswatini 90%, and Mozambique 85% as well as DRC at 80%. This increase, the report says, indicates a cumulative effect of persistent drought conditions compounded by floods, pests, conflict in DRC and northern Mozambique, economic challenges and chronic structural issues. These drivers are exacerbated by climate change.
It was shared in the report that many people in the region suffer micronutrient deficiencies despite diets given that are mainly cereal-based, even where food is available. This result in high numbers of children and other vulnerable populations suffering from malnutrition, the report said. With the increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters such as floods and droughts in the region, the risk of malnutrition is higher and the impact borne disproportionately by the most vulnerable.
The report further stressed that addressing malnutrition is a sustainable way and in all its forms- including stunting, wasting, micronutrient deficiencies and overweight- requires an understanding of the underlying causes at the level of the individual, household and community and region. Available 2019 data shows that the prevalence of global acute malnutrition, wasting- being too thin for your height among children under the age of 5 was above 5% in 7 Member States. There are also pockets of high wasting rates that are above 10% in the DRC, Mozambique and Southern Angola as well as Southern Madagascar.
Further, the report added that the stunting prevalence or being too short for your age was above 30%- classified as very high- in 10 of the 16 SADC Member States. It said reduction in stunting is occurring too slowly to meet the World Health Assembly 2025 or the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 targets. The ‘double burden’ of malnutrition- the concurrence of under nutrition and overweight and obesity is also a growing challenge in the region. The prevalence of overweight in four Member States (Botswana 11.2%, Comoros 10.6%, Seychelles 10.2% and South Africa 13.3%) revealed an emerging problem, the report said.
The Synthesis report added that appropriate feeding in the region is multi-dimensional and influenced by factors such as food quality, mothers’ time, level of education and cultural norms. It highlighted that the minimum acceptable diet- a measure of the quality of young children’s diets, is very low, with most Member States having it at less than 15%. This is due to the consumption of monotonous diets and lack of knowledge on appropriate feeding practices; uninformed behavioural patterns which are often influenced by culture; and caregivers’ limited access to health and nutrition services.
On contributing factors, the report stressed that Southern Africa is heavily affected by climate change and variability, and projections suggest that the impact of climate change will become more severe over the next decades. It indicated that the most pronounced manifestation of climate change will be an increase in temperatures, leading to increased heat stress and reduced crop yields. The region’s staple crop maize is particularly prone to the effects of climate change. Changes in rainfall patterns; increasingly erratic rainfall events of high intensity, leading to floods and more frequent droughts and dry spells; as well as a delayed onset of the rainfall season and an early tailing off, thus reducing the growing period for crops.
Current variability and extreme events across the region are increasingly evident. The report observed trends in weather patterns that provided evidence of climate change effects over the region in the last 15 years. Still on this report, it was reported that most cropping is practised during the November to April rainfall season, with the rest of the year being dry. The report shared insight that a strong drought affected central and western parts of the region during the 2018/19 rainfall season.
It said large parts of Southern Angola, Northern and Southern Botswana, Northern Namibia, Northern South Africa and Zimbabwe received their lowest seasonal rainfall totals since at least 1981, when regional, comparable records began. Rains were delayed and erratic, resulting in reduced area planted poor germination and wilting of crops. Angola, Botswana and Namibia declared national drought emergencies. Other countries affected by localized dry spells and drought included Eswatini, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania.
The report said that the drought affected water supplies for domestic, industrial and agricultural use, fodder and pasture continued to decline as the dry season progressed. Over 30 thousand drought related cattle deaths were recorded in Namibia between October 2018 and April 2019- the normal rainfall season. Still on contributing factors, the report indicated that in the first half of the year several countries experienced flooding caused by extreme weather events: heavy rains, hailstorms, strong winds and tropical cyclones.
In February, Madagascar recorded landslides and floods- worsened by Tropical Storm Eketsang- that affected 9.400 people; Malawi reported 135 thousand people flood affected and tropical storm Desmond in Mozambique resulted in the displacement of over 7 thousand people. The situation worsened dramatically when two tropical cyclones- Idai and Kenneth hit Comoros, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, pushing the number of people flood-affected to 3.8 million in these four countries. The report noted that the cyclones destroyed schools and clinics, disrupting access to basic services and causing widespread displacement. They also hit during the harvest. Idai alone destroyed close to 780 thousand ha of standing crops in Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.
It was reported that cereal production also decreased in Member States countries. Maize accounts for 80% cereal production in the region. Other important cereals are wheat, sorghum, millet and rice. Only 7% of cultivated land is irrigated. It was shared that most farmers in the region are small holders who cultivate less than 5 ha. Furthermore, the report underlined those countries that typically account for most of the regional grain supplies- Zambia and South Africa- also recorded below- average harvest, which have reduced exportable regional surplus from 7.5 million tons to 1.4 million tons. Only South Africa and Tanzania had cereal surpluses in the previous marketing year.
Despite being hailed and still regarded as a hero who saved many lives through his decision to crash the BF5 fighter Jet around the national stadium on the eve of the 2018 BDF day, the deceased Pilot, Major Clifford Manyuni’s actions were treated as a letdown within the army, especially by his master-Commander of the Air Arm, Major General Innocent Phatshwane.
Manyuni’s master says he was utterly disappointed with his Pilot’s failure to perform “simple basics.”
Manyuni was regarded as a hero through social media for his ‘colourful exploits’, but Phatshwane who recently retired as the Air Arm Commander, revealed to WeekendPost in an exclusive interview that while he appreciated Batswana’s outpouring of emotions and love towards his departed Pilot, he strongly felt let down by the Pilot “because there was nothing wrong with that Fighter Jet and Manyuni did not report any problem either.”
The deceased Pilot, Manyuni was known within the army to be an upwardly mobile aviator and in particular an air power proponent.
“I was hurt and very disappointed because nobody knows why he decided to crash a well-functioning aircraft,” stated Phatshwane – a veteran pilot with over 40 years of experience under the Air Arm unit.
Phatshwane went on to express shock at Manyuni’s flagrant disregard for the rules of the game, “they were in a formation if you recall well and the guiding principle in that set-up is that if you have any problem, you immediately report to the formation team leader and signal a break-away from the formation.
Manyuni disregarded all these basic rules, not even to report to anybody-team members or even the barracks,” revealed Phatshwane when engaged on the much-publicised 2018 incident that took the life of a Rakops-born Pilot of BDF Class 27 of 2003/2004.
Phatshwane quickly dismisses the suggestion that perhaps the Fighter Jet could have been faulty, “the reasons why I am saying I was disappointed is that the aircraft was also in good condition and well-functioning. It was in our best interest to know what could have caused the accident and we launched a wholesale post-accident investigation which revealed that everything in the structure was working perfectly well,” he stated.
Phatshwane continued: “we thoroughly assessed the condition of the engine of the aircraft as well as the safety measures-especially the ejection seat which is the Pilot’s best safety companion under any life-threatening situation. All were perfectly functional.”
In aircrafts, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft in an emergency. The seat is propelled out of the aircraft by an explosive charge or rocket motor, carrying the pilot with it.”
Manyuni knew about all these safety measures and had checked their functionality prior to using the Aircraft as is routine practice, according to Phatshwane. Could Manyuni have been going through emotional distress of some sort? Phatshwane says while he may never really know about that, what he can say is that there are laid out procedures in aviation guiding instances of emotional instability which Manyuni also knew about.
“We don’t allow or condone emotionally or physically unfit Pilots to take charge of an aircraft. If a Pilot feels unfit, he reports and requests to be excused. We will subsequently shift the task to another Pilot. We do this because we know the risks of leaving an unfit pilot to fly an aircraft,” says Phatshwane.
Despite having happened a day before the BDF day, Phatshwane says the BDF day mishap did not really affect the BDF day preparations, although it emotionally distracted Manyuni’s flying formation squad a bit, having seen him break away from the formation to the stone-hearted ground. The team soldiered on and immediately reported back to base for advice and way forward, according to Phatshwane.
Sharing the details of the ordeal and his Pilots’ experiences, Phatshwane said: “they (pilots) were in distress, who wouldn’t? They were especially hurt by the deceased‘s lack of communication. I immediately called a chaplain to attend to their emotional needs.
He came and offered them counselling. But soldiers don’t cry, they immediately accepted that a warrior has been called, wiped off their tears and instantly reported back for duty. I am sure you saw them performing miracles the following day at the BDF day as arranged.”
Despite the matter having attracted wide publicity, the BDF kept the crash details a distance away from the public, a move that Phatshwane felt was not in the best interest of the army and public.
“The incident attracted overwhelming public attention. Not only that, there were some misconceptions attached to the incident and I thought it was upon the BDF to come out and address those for the benefit of the public and army’s reputation,” he said.
One disturbing narrative linked to the incident was that Manyuni heroically wrestled the ‘faulty’ aircraft away from the endangered public to die alone, a narrative which Phatshwane disputes as just people’s imaginations. “Like I said the Aircraft was functioning perfectly,” he responded.
A close family member has hinted that the traumatised Manyuni family, at the time of their son’s tragedy, strongly accused the BDF ‘of killing their son’. Phatshwane admits to this development, emphasising that “Manyuni’s mother was visibly and understandably in inconsolable pain when she uttered those words”.
Phatshwane was the one who had to travel to Rakops through the Directorate of Intelligence Services (DIS) aircraft to deliver the sad news to the family but says he found the family already in the know, through social media. At the time of his death, Manyuni was survived by both parents, two brothers, a sister, fiancée and one child. He was buried in Rakops in an emotionally-charged burial. Like his remains, the BDF fighter jets have been permanently rested.
A matter in which former President Lt Gen Ian Khama had brought before Broadhurst Police Station in Gaborone, requesting the State to charge Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC) lead investigator, Jako Hubona and others with perjury has been committed to Headquarters because it involves “elders.”
Broadhurst Police Station Commander, Obusitswe Lokae, told this publication this week that the case in its nature is high profile so the matter has been allocated to his Officer Commanding No.3 District who then reported to the Divisional Commander who then sort to commit it to Police Headquarters.